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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



■7 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01083 6671 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 



http://archive.org/details/publicationsOOgorg 



newTngland's v in dication . 



HENRY GARDINER. 



EDITED WITH NOTES BY 
CHARLES EDWARD BANKS, M. D. 



LON DO.M . 

1 66c, 

Printed for the GORGES SOCIETY, Portland, Maine. 

1884. 



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lands 



VINDI&ATIOH--. 



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. Shewing the Mif-underftanding of the \, 

APPREHENSION 

tfo take all that vaft Countrey under theNotioaofa 
particular place of one VzttzntotBoftmt, the-Metro-; 
"politan of the Machechufets there, whointheie 
, .-, late Times have A&ed as a Free State and II- 
: legal proceeding, as by. the many Books 
..;;".". and Complaints by Petition havecaufed " 
. , - '. an Odium on the Countrey in general, 

in vindication to manifeit the/ worth ? '.' -, 
of the Countrey in general , i t is 
v , ; - v . as hopeful to enlarge His Ma- 
r >'■: , ' ■ jefties Dominions, as if all. 

~ the Bakick Seas were ; s 

; Annexed to His 1762905 

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2/ He k r y Gardener Merchant* whofiTp? 
,>r ther -was cm of the frrfl Adventurers thither , and into 
vther paru of America. ■';-'-.- 









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One Hundred and Sixty Copies. 



No^'.id^^ih\^\' ]L0m/ 



From the Press of 
STEPHEN BERRY, PORTLAND, ME. 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION 



Ihe Gorges Society 



I. 



rJ 






INTRODUCTION 



This tract, which has been selected by the Council 
of the Gorges Society as the initial volume of its series 
of reprints, is one of the many political pamphlets 
showered upon the public at the Restoration, and is an 
excellent expression of the temper of that party in Eng- 
lish politics which was to reassume the reins of govern- 
ment after an enforced retirement. For a decade 
the loyal servitors of the Stuarts had been obliged 
to await that happier day when the throne of the realm 
should claim its own, and when the exiled monarch re- 
crossed the straits of Dover to enter his metropolis, 
the printing presses began to groan under the pressure 
of work that had been stifled during the Protectorate. 
Every cavalier with a " claim " sought at once to attract 
the attention of the court with printed petitions, 
memorials, grievances, remonstrances and other similar 
forms of address in which petitioners " ever pray," and 
Charles the Second found the foot of his throne as 
thickly strewn with claims and petitions as had been 

the 



6 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 

the deluge of roses that scented the streets of London 
in his triumphal march to Whitehall. Of such character 
is " New England's Vindication," a polemical composi- 
tion devoted to an arraignment of the Puritanical element 
which had thus far controlled the destinies of New Ens:- 
land. Since the death of Charles the First, the Puritan 
leaders in the colonies had been left to deal, undisturbed, 
with the problems of domestic concern, and the results 
were everywhere fatal to the sympathizers with loyalty. 
So effectually had the governments of Maine and 
New Hampshire, always loyal to the Crown, been 
usurped by the Roundheads of Massachusetts that, as 
stated by the author, " We that first ventured must 
petition our sometimes servants to be good to their 
Master's Children." 

To present to the " merrie monarch " a picture 
of the oppression under which loyalists were then 
existing in the colonies this book was printed, and 
the reader can judge of the effect which it may have 
had upon him after a perusal of the text. It is evident 
that the author had something to communicate, but the 
process of imparting it to others is painful, and the 
style grows complicated until his ideas and facts become 
involved in a tangle of unreasonable rhetoric. 

It is stated upon the title page that Henry Gardiner 

is 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 7 

is the author, " whose Father was one of the first Adven- 
turers thither and into other parts of America." The 
title page also describes him as a " Merchant," probably 
of London, and there is little doubt, if any, that his 
father was the Henry Gardiner who was associated with 
Capt. John Mason, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and others in a 
patent of lands at Piscataqua, granted by the Council 
for New England, 3 November, 1631, and that he was 
a member of the "Worshipful Companie for Laconia," 
which was formed to operate upon that patent.* 

It is not known where the father was concerned in 
schemes of colonization " in other parts of America," as 
stated, but it is quite probable that he was financially in- 
terested in some of the colonies sent out to Virginia bv 
the Southern or London Company. As to the person- 
ality of the author there is no more direct evidence and 
in making a search for his family connections the co- 
incidence of a father and son bearing the same name at 
this particular period was the only clue that could 
be obtained. Such a combination was found alone in 
the Gardiners of Hertfordshire, whose pedigree is given 
in the Appendix, and it is reasonable to conclude that 
our author is of that family. By this it appears that 
Henry Gardiner, Esq., the father (who was one of the 

Laconia 



* Colonial Papers, vi, 28. 



8 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 

Laconia Company,) by wife Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Spring of Co. Norfolk, had a son Henry, born 1629, 
whom the editor supposes to be the entitled author of 
this tract. If this surmise be correct he would be thirty- 
one years of age at the date of publication of the 
pamphlet, and hence too young to have been an actor 
in the scenes which he describes. Indeed he intimates 
that his statements are not based on personal knowledge, 
but were drawn from " the relation of an Old Gentleman, 
being Mr. Edward Godfrey," who, as is well known, had 
participated in all the trials of colonization in Maine, 
from 1629 to 1655, when he found himself stripped of 
lands and authority, a victim of the usurpation of 
Massachusetts. Godfrey then went to England to secure 
a restoration of his rights and in his strusfo-le for them 
left on record several letters and petitions reciting his 
grievances and the lan^uasfe and ideas advanced bv him 
are so strikingly similar to these, afterwards used by 
Gardiner, that the inference is irresistible that Godfrey 
not only furnished the facts, but wrote them out for him. 
The style is also Godfrey's, who always used a peculiar 
system of idioms that seem to be unique, with a total dis- 
regard of the rules of rhetoric, which is one of the 
characteristics of this little pamphlet. To present this 
proposition in a form that will illustrate the similarity 

of 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



of the text to writings known to be Godfrey's, parallel 
columns are displayed below, the left being an extract 
from the preface of the "Vindication," 1660, and the 
right an extract from a printed petition signed by 
Godfrey, and dated 1659. 



" My Father with others, and Capt. 
John Mason having lived long in the 
Oriental parts of the World, almost 
as much Eastwards, as New England 
is Westwards, in the same longitude 
from 42 to 44 degrees, at great charges 
procured sundry Patents as may ap- 
pear; hoping to fix them and their 
posterity, propagate the Gospel, and 
enlarge His Majesties Dominions, 
where never any Christian inhabited, 
to the vast charges of many 1,000 £." 
— [Preface of" Vindication," 1660.] 



" I thought good to shew so much 
His Majesties Title to the Countrey by 
some Collections I have seen from 
New-found-land to Cape Elorida,which 
were well to be published with the 
Mapps and Cards. * * * 

It were good the Mapps and Cards 
to be Printed were spherically drawn, 
each Pattent to be bounded, and their 
acknowledgements looked unto, what 
not granted, nor Conditions perform- 
ed, if his Majesty would Grant, 
Customers would not be wanting." 
— [Preface of" Vindication," 1660.] 



" Sundry of your petitioners having 
bin versed in the Oriental parts of 
the World, in the same Latitude, as 
New England is to the West, hoping 
to fix them, and there Posterities for 
the Honour of God, good of the Nation, 
and propagating the Gospel, with hope 
of improvement for future, at great 
charges procured sundry Pattents in 
the parts of America call'd New 
England; with divers priviledges as 
may appear : possessed themselves 
of divers tracts, and parcels of Land, 
where never any Christian Inhabited." 
— [Colonial Papers xiii,79; 1650.] 



" His Proceedings and Collections 
of 55 years Pilgrimage * may be made 
manifest: and the rather as he most 
humbly conceives there is matters of 
high concernment of State involved 
in it. From Newfound-land, to Cape 
Florida, he hath the Mapps, and 
Cards, of his own, French, Dutch and 
English, of which at present he pre- 
sents these few some observations or 
notes: First, if the Maps and Cards 



* The same statement is made by Godfrey 
in letters to Povey, 15 July 1660, and 7 
April 1663.— [.Colonial Papers, xv, 20.] 



io NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 

were spherically drawn and Printed, 
and each Pattent to be bounded, their 
acknowledgements looked into, what 
not performed or not granted in, the 
Honourable State to grant, Customers 
would not be wanting." 
—[Colonial Papers xiii, 79; 1659.] 

This last parallel exhibit shows the priority of the 
" Godfrey " petition. It is addresed to the " Rump " 
Parliament, which held its sessions in the fall of 1659, 
" after Richard Cromwell was out," the inefficient Pro- 
tector having abdicated in July. All the phraseology 
shows that it was directed to a parliamentary govern- 
ment — -the " Commonwealth " is mentioned in the ascrip- 
tion, and " this Honorable State " is alluded to in the 
body of the appeal. In the preface of the "Gardiner" 
tract, not only the identical ideas are used, but identical 
language is employed ; " his Majesty " being substituted 
for those titles of power which had been made odious in 
the late interregnum. Having thus established the 
chronological relations of these two quotations, the in- 
ference that Godfrey was the real author of this work 
may be further strengthened by continued examination 
of his writings. In a letter to Sir Edward Nicholas, 
dated 15 July, 1660, he says: " I formerly gave you in 
print an Appendax to the petition to the usurper Crom- 
well and Parliament, consarning the North part of 

America." 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. n 

America." This statement leads us to conclude that 
the "Appendax," which he presented to Nicholas, was 
the tract under consideration, the " Vindication," which 
in reality is only an expansion of the ideas and facts of 
the " petition " to the " Rump Parliament," written by 
Godfrey the year before. This petition, though nomi- 
nally a joint affair, presented by Mason, Gorges, Gardiner, 
Rigby T and Godfrey, contains very little of the grievances 
of Gorges, Mason, Gardiner or Rigby, but a great deal 
of the complaints of Godfrey. Indeed, their names or 
claims are not mentioned specifically in the body of the 
petition, and were only introduced, probably, to 
strengthen the paper, while all the misfortunes of God- 
frey are particularly rehearsed. We can well understand, 
therefore, the reason why the clerk, who filed the paper 
when it was received, endorsed it, " Petition of Mr. God- 
frey concerning his interests in New England." Godfrey 
was, as a matter of fact, the only one who had shown 
any personal interest in the question of the restoration 
of the territory usurped by Massachusetts. For four 
years, he had led the forlon hope of the little band of 
victims who looked in vain to Cromwell and the 
Commonwealth for justice, and in his poverty, for he 
was then an inmate of Ludgate as a poor debtor, he 
induced Gardiner, the son of an old associate to bear 

the 



12 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 

the expense of printing a book which might be of 
mutual advantage in securing them a hearing before the 
King. Of what value soever these surmises may be as 
to the authorship of this little pamphlet, it is certain that 
the impress of Godfrey's zeal is on every page, and as 
such it is of great interest to Maine as a memorial of her 
first governor, elected in 1649, k4 by most voysses," and 
whose last words in his old age were a plea for her in- 
dependence from the domination of Massachusetts. 

The Editor of this volume is indebted to the Hon. 
John Russell Bartlett, of. Providence, Rhode island, for 
a copy of the text of New England's " Vindication," 
obtained from the John Carter Brown Library,* over 
which he has so ably presided from its inception. To 
him is also due the loan of the book to the printers, for 
the purpose of securing a fac-simile of the title page, 
and many other courtesies in connection with the textual 
appearance, which it is a pleasure to acknowledge. 

Editorial obligations are also due to Mr. David 
Hutcheson, of the Library of Congress, Washington, 
D. C, for privileges in consulting rare books, and to Mr. 
Hubbard Winslow Bryant, of Portland, Maine, for valu- 
able typographical suggestions, all of which have aided 
me in completing this work amid official duties. 

C. E. B. 

•There is a copy of this tract in the Lenox Library of New York. 



U tht 

S$*aft*r« 

Courteous Reader, 

My Father with others, and Capt. John Mason, hav- 
ing lived long in the Oriental parts of the World, almost 
as much Eastwards, as New England is Westwards, in 
the same longitude* from 42 to 44 degrees, at great 
charges procured sundry Patents, as may appear ; hop- 
ing to fix them and their posterity, propagate the Gospel, 
and enlarge His Majesties Dominions where never any 
Christian inhabited, to the vast charges of many 1.000. £. 
as by sundry Books extant, besides the 
Relation of an old Gentleman in them Mr. Godfrey, 
mentioned, being well known to have 
merited of his own Countrey, in other parts, here, and in 
New-England 27 years in person, is manifest; hath in- 
duced 

•This is an error for latitude, and in the John Carter Brown copy the correc- 
tion has been made with a pen in an apparently contemporary hand. 
2 



i 4 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 

duced me to write these few lines. 1 I find the Countrey no 
less hopeful to His Majesty, then what we did expect, but 
under Notion of one particular Patent, of 30 others 2 now 
grown great, strong and potent by the Times and friends 
here. In these most sad times of distraction, the Mache- 
chusets of Boston acting as a Free State : have by those 
proceedings cast an Odium on all that vast Countrey, 
not onely to be despicable, unprofitable, and matters of 
other consequence. I thought good to shew so much 
His Majesties Title to the Countrey by some Collections 
I have seen from New-found-land to Cape Florida, which 
were well to be published with the Mapps and Cards ; 
till when this will suffice to shew the unjust proceedings 
of the said Gentleman of the Colony of Boston, against 
the said Gentleman and those of the Eastern parts, who 
were not all of their tenents, but ever acted according 
to His Majesties Lawes, in taking the Oath of Allegiance 
and Supremacy, they being of a contrary opinion : and 
Mr. Hugh Peters and other their Agents made use of 
their times here, 1652, subjugated all the Eastern parts, 

and 



1. Edward Godfrey, the eldest son 
of Oliver and Elizabeth Godfrey, of 
Barnend, Wilmington, Kent, was 
born 1584, and therefore at this time 
was 7G years of age, which warranted 
the appellation of " old Gentleman." 

2. A list of twenty-five of the 
patents issued by the Council is given 



by Palfrey, [History of New Eng- 
land, i, 397-398 ] ; Jenness gives a list 
of twenty, [Transcripts, 23, 35]; and 
another of twenty, probably compiled 
by Edward Godfrey, is reprinted in 
the appendix of the " Popham Me- 
morial Volume," p. 124. 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 15 

and put the Oath of Fidelity to the State, without any 
Relation to England, to the mine of some Families. I 
wish every man may have his Right, and his Majesty 
his Right Interest : which is all my aime and endeavour. 
It were good the Mapps and Cards to be Printed, were 
spherically drawn, each Pattent to be bounded, and their 
acknowledgments looked unto, what not granted, nor 
Conditions performed, if His Majesty would Grant, 
Customers would not be wanting, and a Revenue to His 
Majesty raised, which will cause Peace and Ouiett to the 
Countrey, and security of His Majesties interest. 



Note. In the original, the pages of the Epistle are not numbered. 



liiSfel 








(i) To Answer such as say His Majesty King Charles 
has no Title to that vast Empire, from New-found-land 
to Cape-Florida : some such there be ; others no King 
but Christ; 3 others Libertines, to do what is good in 
their own eyes ; some Israelites : the rest Egyptians. 




tion of 200 Marks per annum. 4 2. 



SPgainst all. His Majesties Right in those parts, 
\\ is 1. By discovery from Henry the 7th time, 
by Sebastian Cabott, for which he had a pen- 
By Possesion of Sir 
Humphrey 

in 2 Maine Hist. Coll., i. "Old John 
Cabot," says Strachey, " the father, 
from whom only, indeed, we have our 
earliest claim and interest (as we 
may right well) to this country." 
[Historie of Travaile, 140.] John Ca- 
bot sailed from Bristol, May, U97, 
reached Labrador or Newfoundland, 
24 June following, and returned to 
England in October. [Spanish State 
Papers, I, 177. | It is supposed that 
he took a colony over in 1498, (Thevet, 
Cosmographie Universelle 1575, tome 
ii, p. 1014.) 



3. An allusion, probably,'to Thom- 
as Venner and his " Fifth Monarchy " 
men, who raised a commotion in Lon- 
don in January, 1661. [Pepys, Diary, 
1, 139, 14G.J 

4. This opens the question of the 
relative portion of credit due to the 
Cabots, pere et Jils, in the discovery 
of the continent of America. It is 
the stumbling block of all historians,. 
and is too complicated to be discussed 
here. The matter is detailed con- 
cisely by Doyle, [English Colonies in 
America, 390] and by M. d'Avezac 



iS 



; 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



Humphrey Gilbert, 5 Sir Richard Greenfield, 6 Sir Wal- 
ter Rawley 7 in Queen Elizabeths time, named Virginia. 
After whose death King James of ever blessed memory, 
peace being concluded, many Sea-men and Souldiers 
went to serve other Princes : 3 others on Discoveries, as 

the 



5. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was the 
first who attempted to test the prob- 
lem of colonization. He set sail 11 
June, 1583, with five vessels, bearing 
260 men, and on August 3d came to 
anchor in St. John's harbor, New 
Foundland, and there proclaimed the 
royal title two days later. [Hakluyt, 
Voyages, iii, 243.] 

6. " To these Discoueries I could 
adde the Discouery of Virginia, by 
the euer memorable and valiant 
Knight Sir Richard Grinuile, and the 
Plantation there: which doubtlesse 
promiseth and already restoreth much 
benefit to our Kingdome, bailing con- 
tinued there almost from the yeare 

1585, till this hower." [R M , 

Nevves of S r Walter Raleigh ; Lon- 
don, 1618-9.] Sir Richard Grcnville, 
Vice Admiral of the Royal Navy, set 
6ail April, 1585, for America, with 
seven vessels and 108 colonists, in 
behalf of his kinsman, Sir Walter 
Raleigh. He made the Carolina coast 
20 June following, and returned 23 
August, after landing his freight and 
passengers. Next year he re-crossed 
with supplies for this colony, but they 
had been taken off by Drake some 
time before. He tried to keep pos- 



session of the country by leaving 15 
men on Roanoke Island, and then re- 
turned to England. [Hildreth, United 
States, i, 82-85; Hariot, Briefe and 
true Report, (Frankfort 1590) passim.] 

7. Sir Walter Raleigh sent out two 
vessels under Philip Amidas and 
Arthur Barlow, who reached the 
coast of North Carolina, 13 July, 
1584, but they were taken off by 
Drake before Grenville could reach 
them. In April, 1587, he dispatched 
an agricultural colony, but all per- 
ished leaving no record of its melan- 
choly fate. [Bancroft, United States, 
i, 102, 107.] " To whose succor," says 
Brereton, "he (Sir Walter Raleigh) 
" hath sent five several times at his 
" own charges. The parties by him 
"set forth, performed nothing; some 
" of them following their own profits 
"elsewhere; others returning with 
" frivolous allegations." [Brief and 
True Relation. | 

8. Peace with Spain was effected 
in the Sammer of 1604, immediately 
after the accession of King James to 
the throne of England, and the seas 
were made more secure to English 
voyagers. [Rymer, Fcedera, xvi, 585.] 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



*9 



the North- West passage, &c, some fell with the Coast of 
New-England, and brought home some of the Natives. 9 

So my Lord Popham and others pro- 
cured Pattents (2) two Colonies to be About 1640. 
settled in those parts, one by the Name 
of Virginia ; the other of New-England. 10 

Then my Lord Popham and others sent to in- 1 607. 
habite New-England, and settled a Colony at 

Saquadahock, 



9. "And so it pleased our great 
God, that there happened to come 
into the harhor of Plymouth (where 
I then commanded) one Captain 
Weymouth, that had been employed 
by Lord Arundel, of Wardour, for 
the discovery of the North-west pas- 
sage; but falling short of his course, 
happened into a river on the coast 
of America, called Pemaquid, from 
whence lie brought five of the natives, 
three of whose names were Manida, 
Skettwarroes, and Tisquantum, whom 
I seized upon. They were all of one 
nation, but of several parts and sev- 
eral families. This accident must be 
acknowledged the means under God, 
of putting on foot and giving life to 
all our plantations." [Gorges, Briefe 
Narration, c. ii. ; comp. Strachey, 
lliatorie of Travaile, c. viii.J That 
this capture was one of the principal 
objects of Weymouth's voyage, and 
not a mere caprice, appears from the 
explanation of the historian of the 
expedition: "We would have been 
▼cry loath to have done them any hurt, 



which of necessity we had been con- 
strained to have done, if we had at- 
tempted them in a multitude, which 
we must and would rather than have 
wanted them, being a matter of great 
importance for the full accomplish- 
ment of our voyage." 

10. King James granted to Sir 
John Popham and seven others, 10 
April, 1G0G, the continent of America, 
from the 34th to the 45th degrees 
North Latitude; extending 100 miles 
inland and including all the islands 
within 100 miles of the shore. [Stra- 
chey, Historie of Travaile, 161.] This 
charter provided for a local govern- 
ment at home, entrusted to a council 
of fourteen, with two companies, one 
of North and the other of South Vir- 
ginia, for carrying into execution the 
plans of colonization. Sir Francis 
Popham, who was one of the Council 
of Virginia, is presumably "My Lord 
Popham " of the text. The venerable 
Sir John Popham, Chief Justice of 
England, father of Sir Francis, was a 
patron of the Virginia Company. 



20 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



Saquadahock, the Ruins and fruit Trees remain to this 
day; but he dying, all fell:" Then divers Fishermen 
went onely to fish : 12 and one Hunt at the end of his 



Voy 



12. The first colony organized 
undeT the charter, consisted of 120 
persons, and they sailed 31 May, 1607, 
(a year after the date of the docu- 
ment), in two ships, the " Gift of God," 
and the " Mary and John," whereof 
George Popham, brother of the Chief 
Justice, was Admiral of the fleet, in 
command of the former, and Raleigh 
Gilbert, as Vice Admiral, had charge 
of the latter. They made Iron-bound 
Island, harbor of La Heve, July 31, 
and Aug. 19, finally reached the site 
of their future plantation,at the mouth 
of the Sagadahoc. The President of 
the colony, George Popham, died 5 
February, 1608, and the project was 
abandoned when Gilbert decided to 
leave them to secure a patrimony at 
home. No mention is made of fruit 
trees in the Journal of the expedition, 
which has lately been discovered and 
printed by that accomplished historic- 
al student, Rev. B. F. Decosta. [Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Proc. 1880.] The original 
sources of information concerning the 
Sagadahoc Colony .which were known 
prior to the publication of this valu- 
able pamphlet, are : Strachey, His- 
toric of Travaile unto Virginia, c. vii ; 
Gorges, Briefe Narration, pp. 8-10; 
Smith, Generall Historic pp. 203-4; 
Purchas, His Pilgrimage, p. 756 ; Prcsi- 



age 



dent and Council, Brief Relation, p. 2 ; 
Sir "William Alexander, Encourage- 
ment to Colonies, p. 30. The editor 
feels like saying with Levett : " For 
Sagadahoc I need say nothing of it, 
there hath been heretofore enough 
said by others, and I fear me too 
much." The modern bibliography of 
this subject is too voluminous for 
enumeration here, but notable among 
the publications upon this topic is 
the " Popham Memorial Volume," 
issued by the Maine Historical So- 
ciety. 

12. " Finding I could no longer be 
seconded by others," writes Gorges, 
"1 became an owner of a ship myself, 
fit for that employment, and under 
color of fishing and trade, I got a 
master and company for her, to which 
I sent [Richard] Vines and others 
my servants with their provision for 
trade and discovery, appointing them 
to leave the ship and ship's company 
for to follow their business in the 
usual place, (for I knew they would 
not be drawn to seek by any means.) 

* * * I was forced to hire men 
to stay there the Winter quarter at 
extreme rates, and not without dan- 
ger, for that the war had consumed 
the Bashaba and most of the Saga- 
mores, with such men of action as 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 21 



Voyage, in the Long-Robert betrayed 22 of the Natives 
aboard his Ship, carried them for Spain, to sell them for 
Slaves ; (an ill Act) they would not work ; the Spaniards 
refused them; some of them brought for England: 
Hunt taken by the Turks coming home. 13 

By 



followed them, and those that re- 
mained were sore afflicted with the 
plague, so that the country was in a 
manner left void of inhabitants. * * 
And this course I held for some years 
together, but nothing to my private 
profit, for what I got in one way I 
spent in another." [Gorges, Briefe 
Narration - .] The war of the natives 
referred to by Gorges, is assigned to 
the year 1G15, and the "plague "to 
the following three years, 1G16-18. 
[Williamson, Maine, i, 214-216.] 
From these dates it is inferred by 
historical writers that Richard Vines 
and a company of men spent the 
Winter of 1616-17 at a camp, sup- 
posed to be near the mouth of the 
Saco river, where he afterwards lived. 
[Folsom, Saco and Biddeford, 2.3, 24.] 
13. Thomas Hunt was master of 
one of the ships in Captain John 
Smith's expedition, 1614, and " when 
I was gone," writes the indignant 
Admiral, "thinking to prevent that 
intent I had to make there a planta- 
tion, thereby to keep this abounding 
country still in obscurity, that he and 
some few merchants more might en- 



joy wholly the benefit of the trade 
and profit of this country, betrayed 
four and twenty of those poor savages 
aboard his ship, and most dishonestly 
and inhumanly, for their kind usage 
of me and all our men, carried them 
with him to Maligo, and there for a 
little private gain sold those silly 
savages for rials of eight." [Gener- 
all Historie, 205.] In the "Briefe 
Relation " of the President and Coun- 
cil for New England, it is stated that 
when the friars ascertained whence 
these captives came they took some 
of them and instructed them in the 
Christian faith. [2 Mass. Hist. Coll., 
ix, 6; and 3, vi, 58, Gl, 132.] One of 
the captives was the celebrated 
Squanto or Tisquantum, [Pratt, Nar- 
rative, 4 Mass. Hist. Coll., iv, 4S5] 
and Mourt tells us of meeting an aged 
squaw, " no lesse then an hundred 
yeeres old," whose three sons were 
stolen by this freebooter. [Relation, 
50.] This dastardly act was long re- 
membered by the Indians as a griev- 
ance against the English, and doubt- 
less formed no little part of their fury 
exhibited in later years. 



22 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 

By reason of these salvages another Achieve- 1 6 1 4. 
ment was made but it came to nothing. 14 

Sir Richard Hawkins, went in a Ship of his 161 5. 
own, the Garland, to make a Fishing-Voyage 
and Discovery : made a good Voyage, but no Dis- 
covery. 15 

His 



14. " While I was laboring by 
what means I might best continue 
life in my languishing hopes, there 
comes one Captain Henry Harley 
unto me, bringing with him a native 
of the island of Capawick, a place 
seated to the southward of Cape Cod, 
whose name was Epenowe, a person 
of goodly stature, strong and well 
proportioned. This man was taken 
upon the main with some twenty-nine 
others by a ship of London, that 
endeavored to sell them for slaves in 
Spain : but being understood that 
they were Americans, and also found 
to be unapt for their uses, they would 
not meddle with them, this being one 
of them refused." (Gorges, Briefe 
Narration, c. xi.) Sir Ferdinando took 
this savage into his charge, and from 
him learned some valuable facts about 
the country, as it turned out that he 
knew " those subject to the Bashaba, 
whom the Captain knew, being him- 
self one of those sent over by the 
Lord Chief Justice, and by that means 
understood much of his language, 
found out the place of his birth, 



nature of the country, their several 
commodities and the like." In 1014 
Gorges sent him to New England 
with Captain Hobson as a pilot, when 
he made his escape. Epenowe was 
exhibited in the streets of London as 
a wonder, proving quite a source of 
profit to his owners. [Smith, Gen- 
erali Ilistorie, 208.] Strachey speaks 
of " the Salvadgesatthistyme showed 
in London," [Ilistorie of Travaile,] 
and Shakespeare alludes to the 
same thing in Trinculo's remark: 
" When they will not give a doit to 
relieve a lame beggar, they will lay 
out ten to see a dead Indian." 
[Tempest, act i, sc. ii.] This play 
was acted at Whitehall, 1 November, 
1011. 

15. Sir Richard Hawkins, Presi- 
dent of the Plymouth Company, sailed 
to the New England coast, but found 
such a serious war raging among the 
savages that he left his intended cruis- 
ing place and went to Virginia. He 
sailed ihence to Spain, where he sold 
his cargo, and returned to England. 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



His Majesty granted Letters Pattents to 1619. 
the CounciL of Plymouth, and after confirmed 
by Pattents of Incorporation to certain Lords, 1620. 
but great troubles arose in Parliament, that 
it was a Monopoly ; of which and other passages, I shall 
treat hereafter at lar^e. 16 

Then the said Council granted sundry Pattents, as to 
Capt. Willeston, 17 Mr. Tho. Morton, 18 some of Dor- 
chester 19 and others, 20 to settle in the Bay of the Mache- 
chusets. There 



16. In the list of public grievances 
presented to Pari iament in June, 1G21, 
was the alleged monopoly of the New 
England fisheries, by the Council of 
Plymouth. Sir Edward Coke, the 
chairman of the committee who re- 
ported the charges, said: "Shall 
none visit the sea coast for fishing? 
This is to make a monopoly of the 
seas, which were wont to be free. If 
you alone are to pack and dry fish, 
you attempt a monopoly of the wind 
and sun." Sir Ferdinando Gorges 
appeared at the bar of the House of 
Commons three times, in defence of 
the charter, and succeeded in saving 
the grant from modification by his 
skillful refutation of the theories 
advanced by the enemies of their 
enterprise. [Parliamentary History, 
i. 1,490 ; comp. Gorges, Briefe Nar- 
ration, c. xviii-xxi.] The bill first re- 
ported, 17 March, 16234, was passed, 



but never received royal assent. [Ban- 
croft, United States,!, 326, 027.] 

17. Captain Thomas Wollaston, 
with some thirty or forty persons 
settled on a bluff, which still bears 
his name, on the sea-shore of what is 
now the town of Quincy. [Bradford, 
Plymouth Plantation, 235; comp. 
Dudley's Letter to the Countess of 
Lincoln.] 

18. Thomas Morton arrived in 
June, 1G22, with thirty servants, and 
settled on the place occupied by 
Wollaston, changing the title of the 
promontory to " Merry-Mount." [New 
English Canaan, 59.] 

19. In the division of the territory 
of New England among the patentees, 
the country about Cape Ann was 
assigned to Lord Sheffield, better 
known as Earl Mulgrave. [President 
and Council, Briefe Relation, 31-32; 
comp. Purchas, Pilgrimes, iv, 1S72; 



24 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION 



There were divers of Robinson's Tenents of Amster- 
dam, and other Merchants of London, joyned to settle a 
Colony nigh Cape Cod, now called New-Plymouth in 
New-England ; Godfrey was one, but in two years they 
brought those that sent them iSocv£, in debt, so that 
the principal was fain to pay the debt ; 21 but since they 
have flourished and thrived, and do to this day : have well 
(3) acted for themselves, as the Mode of New-England is. 



Smith, True Travels, 40.] Of him it 
was purchased, for the Plymouth 
Pilgrims, by Edward Winslow, and 
they, in turn, sold it (1624) to Rev. 
John White," a famous Puritan divine, 
usually called the Patriarch of Dor- 
chester." [Echard, History of Eng- 
land, 053.] Smith says, "by Cape 
" Ann there is a plantation a-begin- 
"ning by the Dorchester men, which 
" they hold of those of Xew Plymouth, 
" who also by them have set up a h\sh- 
"ing work." [Generall llistorie 
(1G24), 247.] The original source of 
information concerning the Dor- 
chester adventurers, is " The Planters 
Plea," attributed to John White, 
while Thornton's " Landing at Cape 
Ann " illustrates the subject from 
the standpoint of modern research. 
The company of fishermen arrived at 
Cape Ann in 1023, near to Salem, 
whither they removed in a short time, 
"not liking their seat at Cape Ann," 
and Roger Conant was appointed by 
the partners at home, "Governor" 
of their trading station. 



There 

20. Thomas Weston had a patent 
for Wessagussett and arrived at his 
destination about June. or July, 1622 
[Bradford, Plymouth Plantation, 121- 
123], but soon was obliged to leave, 
owing to internal dissensions. [Wins- 
low, Good Nevves, 37-47.] 

21. The contract of the Plymouth 
"Pilgrims" with the Merchants Ad- 
venturers Company, of London, was 
to terminate in seven years, by limita- 
tion. [Bradford, Plymouth Planta- 
tion, 45, 46.J Owing, however, to dis- 
couragements of the former and fac- 
tion among the latter, failure of pay- 
ments resulted and the colonists 
found themselves in 1025, over £1,400 
in debt. Two years later they had 
made but little, if any, progress, and 
their agent, Isaac Allerton, had to 
settle with the London Merchants 
on a basis of £1,800 as the sum of in- 
debtedness, payable in nine annual 
installments. The release was signed 
15 November, 1020, by forty-two of the 
partners. [1 Mass. Hist. Coll. iii, 48.] 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



There were divers worthy Gentlemen, de- 162 1. 
sirous to separate from the Church of England, 4 Car. 
yet among themselves of sundry Opinions (as 
hereafter) the most discretest of them procured a Pattent, 
first by my Lord of Warwick, from the Council of New- 
Plymouth, after inlarged by his Majesty to Sir Will. 
Russel, Mr. Jo: Wynthrope, and divers others, as may 
appear: 22 by Authority whereof, and persons of so great 
Eminency and Quality going, and Books of Incourage- 
ment dispersed over all England ; 23 they proceeded so 
well and effectually, that seven Ships were provided at 
the Couses and Hampton, and those parts, with all sorts 
of Provisions fit" to settle a New Colony in a New 
Countrey : divers good and godly people went, but 
divers under the Umbrella of Religion, in regard of the 
largeness of their Pattent, which was three Miles South 
of Charles River, three Miles North East of Merimack, 

and 



22. This was the Patent from the 
Plymouth Company, dated 10 March, 
1G28, to the Governor and Company 
of the Massachusetts Bay ; and among 
the grantees was Sir Henry Roswelt, 
who appears in the text as Sir William 
Russel. The incorporators procured 
a charter from the Crown, 4 March, 
1G29, which added a civil constitution 
to mercantile and territorial privi- 
leges. [Arclueologia Americana, iii, 
xvi.j 



23. " I sawe a booke at Bury at a 
bookeseller's conteining a declaration 
of their intent who be gone to Xewe, 
England, set out by themselves, and 
purposed for satisfaction to the King 
and State (as I conceive,) because of 
some scandalous misconccivings that 
runne abroade." [John Rous, Diary, 
7 June, lOoO. Camden Society, Ixvi, 
54.] 



26 NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



and fifty Miles by Sea shore, 1629. Bounded by them- 
selves, named it the Bound-House, yet to be seen; 24 their 
Pattent had large Limits and Priviledges by Incorpora- 
tion, as Custom free for seven years, which other Pattents 
had not ; yet they were tyed not to act contrary to the 
Laws, or any way repugnant to England; & other 
Acknowledgments, as may appear. Men of great Estates 
went, and many ventured deeply, great Sums of Money 
of Benevolences gathered, at present about 700 £. per 
Annum, in I and yearly, for the converting the Indians, 
what done therein, the Lyon not so fierce, as painted 
Mr. Rouse's Book will shew. 25 Of persons of note went 
the Lady Arabella, Daughter to the Earl of Lincoln, 
and her Husband, Mr. Isaac Johnson ; in honor of whom 
the Ship Eagle, the Admiral was called the Arabella; so 
(4) with great Riches, Furniture, Provisions of all sorts, 
Trades-men, and Utensils for all Manufactures, people 

of 



24. The " Bound House " was 
erected in 1GGG, at a plantation called 
" Wennicunnett," now Seabrook, New 
Hampshire, by the Massachusetts 
authorities, for the purpose of laying 
a formal claim to the Northern boun- 
dary of their Patent. [Mass. Coll., 
Rec. i, 167.] 

25. There are several historical 
tracts which might answer to the des- 
ignation of "Mr. House's Book," viz: 



The Secret Workes of a Cruel Feople, 
London, 16-39, by George Fox, 4to. 
pp. 18. It contains a letter " to the 
Town of Boston in New England," 
signed by John Tious. New England's 
Ensigne, London, 1G59. [Smith in 
his "Catalogue of Friend's Books," 
says the authors were Humphrey 
Norton, John Rous and John Cope- 
land.] Both of these books relate 
the sufferings of the Quakers in New 
England. 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 27 

of all sorts went ; Portantcr avarii Pigmaliones opes 
pellago Dux, Fczmena factL Rclinqucndo.io leave their 
Native Countrey, Relegando, to conbine to settle at 
Vtopia, they safely arrived at Salem, and yearly great 
multitudes of People of all sorts went thither and resorted 
to them by Thousands ; 26 they fell to modelling of Gov- 
ernment for Church and Common-wealth, sfatherino: of 
Churches ; as People came, they could not agree of 
points of Controversie in Religion ; a most hideous Mon- 
ster was born, of stupendious Forms and Shapes, which 
did prognosticate their Dissention ; Mr. Cotton the 
Minister said in the Pulpit, it had as many Shapes as 
Tenents broached; 27 so that some not a^reeino: were 

banished 



20. " The number of ships," says 
Johnson, "that transported passen- 
gers in this space (i. c. "fifteen years 
space to the year 1040") as is sup- 
posed, is 293. men, women and chil- 
dren, passing over this wide ocean, as 
near as at present can be gathered, is 
also supposed to be 21,200, or there- 
about." [Wonder- Working Provi- 
dence, c. xiv.] The whole sum of 
money expended in establishing them- 
selves in New England was estimated 
at " one hundred ninety-two thousand 
pound, besides that which the Ad- 
venturers laid out in England." [Ibid. 
c. xiii; comp. Dummer, Defence of 
the New England Charters, 13; 



Hutchinson, Massachusetts, i, 01 ; 
Oldmixon, British Empire, &c, i, 81.] 
27. Ann Hutchinson, the leader of 
the Antinomian sect, which so stirred 
up the Puritans of Massachusetts, 
gave birth to a monstrosity, and the 
pious deacons and elders of Boston 
seized upon this private misfortune, 
with strange glee, and made indeli- 
cate references to it iu the pulpit and 
public prints. Thomas Welde thus 
describes the occurrence: " Mistris 
Hutchison beinge big with childe, and 
growing towards the time of her la- 
bour, as other women do, shee brought 
forth not one (as Mistris Dierdid) but 
(which was more strange to amaze- 



28 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



banished, and a Council, or a Conventicle held, a man 
might see a Speeck, but a wise man would not regard 
the Punctilio's, as in occasion I shall say hereafter ; 2S 

there 



merit) thirty monstrousse births or 
thereabouts at once : some of them 
bigger, some lesser, some of one shape 
some of another : few of any perfect 
shape, none at all of them (as farre as 
I could ever learn} of humane shape. 
* * * * ^ n ,| these things are so 
well known in New England, that 
they have been made use of in pub- 
like by the reverend Teacher of Bos- 
ton and testified by so many letters 
to Friends, here that the things are 
past question. And see how the wis- 
dome of God fitted this judgement to 
her sinful way, for look as shee had 
vented misbapen opinions so shee 
must bring forth deformed monsters: 
and as about thirty opinions in num- 
ber, so many monsters." [Short Story, 
(preface.) London, 1644.] Winthrop 
says, " In the open assembly at Bos- 
ton, upon a lecture day, (it was) de- 
clared by Mr. Cotton to be twenty- 
seven several lumps of man's seed, 
without any alteration, or mixture of 
any thing from the woman, and there- 
upon gathered, that it might signify 
her error in denying inherent right- 
eousness, but that all was Christ in 
us, and nothing of ours in our faith, 
love, etc. Hereupon the governour 
wrote to Mr. Ciarke, a physician to 
those of the island (of Aquidneck) to 



know the certainty thereof, who re- 
turned him this answer: * * *." 
[Journal, i, 32G ] The allusion to 
" Mistris (Mary) Dier" brings us to 
a similar occurrence which took place 
in 1G37, at Boston. She was the wife 
of William Dyer, "sometime mil- 
liner in New Exchange, London," and 
had employed a nurse, who proved to 
be a " Familist." Tbis-slender thread 
was also utilized by the Puritans to 
bring discredit upon those who dif- 
fered from them in belief. This case 
was reported to the London authori- 
ties by Winthrop, [Col. Mss., ix, 74,] 
and became a topic of gubernatorial 
correspondence between the chief 
magistrates of Plymouth and Massa- 
chusetts, [4 Mass/ Hist. Coll. vi, 150.] 
Hull gives some of the disgusting de- 
tails of this monster, [Diary, Arch. 
Amer., iii, 18S,] but even the most 
curious reader will gladly be spared 
any further particulars of these cases. 
Rev. John Wheelwright, in his criti- 
cism upon Welde's book, says : 
" What if the distemper we usually 
call cholera did for the present op- 
presse those women ? must it needs 
be proclaimed ? Must it needs be in 
print?" [Mercurius Americanus, 
(London, 1043.) 7.| 
28. The Brownes (John and Sam- 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



29 



there was such a confusion, that the wisest were at a 
maze, and so many Complaints came to England against 
them, that, it was doubtful in short time they would quite 
shake off the Royal Jurisdiction of England (as now) all 
the Ships stayed for going thither; 29 all objections 
against them were then answered by Mr. Godfrey, who 
lived remote from them, where all had taken the Oath of 
Allegiance and Supremacy; so that upon his Plea, all 
the Ships were cleared. 30 Thereby their Governour and 

others, 



uel) were expelled from Salem, in the 
summer of 1629, by Enclicott, for de- 
siring to worship according to the 
Book of Common Prayer. [Morton, 
Memorial, 148]; Roger Williams was 
banished 3 September, 1G35, by order 
of the General Court, for preaching 
the doctrine of liberty of conscience, 
[Mass. Col. Rec. i, 160, 161 ; comp. 
Dexter, Roger Williams, passim.] ; 
John Wheelwright and Ann Hutchin- 
son, with their followers, who differed 
from the reverend elders of Boston 
in the matter of the in-dwelling of the 
Holy Ghost and Justification by 
Faith, were banished 2 November, 
1637. [Mass. Col. Rec. i, 207 ; comp. 
Winthrop, Journal, i, 240. j These 
well known persons head a list, too 
long for enumeration, which includes 
the names of Gardiner, Stone, Wal- 
ford, Gray and others of less note, 
who suffered the penalty of expatria- 
tion for conscience sake. [Mass. Col. 



Rec. i, 77, 82, 83, 86, 91, 108, 159; 
comp. Winthrop, Journal, i, 61, 111.] 

29. The Privy Council first ordered 
00 March, 1638,that certain ships " now 
on the river of Thames, prepared to 
go for New England," should be de- 
tained ; and April 1st the same course 
was taken with "all that should there- 
after be discovered to be prepared or 
intend to go thither." This order was 
rescinded April 10, and the vessels pro- 
ceeded to their destination, (Journal 
of the Privy Council) although the 
strictest watch was placed upon all 
emigrants, who were obliged to pro- 
cure licenses to transport themselves, 
after satisfactory evidences of loyalty 
were given. "There came over this 
summer," says Winthrop, " twenty 
ships, and at least three thousand per- 
sons." 1 Journal, i, 20-}.] 

■j0. This is a reference to the first 
Quo Warranto trial, as the Massa- 
chusetts charter had been called in 



30 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



others, held Gratum Opus, since ill rewarded. Mr. John 
Wynthrope was a worthy Patriot and Governour, his 
equal they may have in time, but a better will never 
come there ; for since his death others also dead, and 
some returned to England seeking ambitiously (5) far 
beyond their power or abilities, as by so many Books, 
Petitions, and Remonstrances against them may appear: 
So we may say of Rome, Behold of late O little Rome, 
to what a greatness she has come ; of Boston one poor 
Pattent granted, but of late has now become a mighty 
State ; never Horse nor man ere turned home bettered 



by the sight of Rome. 31 

by order dated April 4, 1638, [Hub- 
bard, -New England, 208.], and in 
September following Sir John Banks, 
Attorney General, proceeded against 
it. [Chalmers' Annals, 299.] Edward 
Godfrey was then in England, on busi- 
ness, and, as the author says, " all 
objections against them were then 
answered by Mr. Godfrey," for as the 
friend of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, he 
could do effective work, particularly 
as their own people " stood nmtte." 
In 16-32, when the Massachusetts au- 
thorities, by a specious interpretation 
of its tern s, used this same charter 
to subvert the lawful government of 
Maine, theu administered by Godfrey 
as Governor, he reminded them of the 
services he had voluntarily rendered 
them fourteen years before. Secretary 
Rawson, in reply, said : " Whereas 



Fro 



m 



yourself was pleased to answer objec- 
tions we cannot but thankfully ac- 
knowledge youre kindness towards 
us." [Hazard, i, 564.] Rawson, how- 
ever, intimates to Godfrey that his 
work was superfluous, as " God in his 
providence had saved them." Win- 
throp before this had already written 
that " the Eord frustrated their de- 
sign." [Journal, i, 101.] 

31. Whether intentional or not, 
these two lines and the first few sen- 
tences of the next paragraph, resolve 
themselves into a rhythmical flow: 

Behold of late, O little Koine, 
To what a greatness she has come : 

Of" Boston, 

One poor Pattent granted, but of late, 
Has now become a mighty slate : 
Never Horse nor man ere turned home 
Bettered by the sight of Koine. 
From Boston in the American Strands 
None ere came bettered except he came by 
Laud. 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 31 

From Boston in the American Strands, none ere 
came bettered except he came by Land, for too much 
power so far off, in such hands, seldom wants danger 
not to measure Jurisdiction by the length of their 
Swords ; they may hold themselves wise, and turn others 
out for fools, (but now) Che Tropo sc striuge toto dis- 
leguca: if of meek spirit, should have suffered others 
after thirty years possession, and never any Complaint 
there or here, and approved by themselves, as under all 
their hands will appear. If Royal or Loyal subjects, 
should have emulated who. should have given the best 
account of all their Transactions, and suffered Appeals 
and Judication for England, and assisted one the other, 
if they will acknowledge Englands power: If it be but 
weakness in some Men, as a sublimated Coach-man from 
the Box to the Bench, and Plow to Pulpit ; a Taylor or 
two, and the like, with the mecannick Grandee Laymans 
Deputy, to strick so large as to act contrary to Jus 
Gentium Lex, Law of our Country, or Concelarum Con- 
tience, to pass Sentence before Plea or Judication, to 
inrich some turbulent men of low condition and less 
breeding ; as one answered about the Book of Common- 
Prayer, he shewed them that could read, the 29. Eccles. 
How he can get wisdome that holdcth the Plow, &c. 

such 



-32 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



such should not sit 



hirrh 



in the Congregation, 32 &c. 



They may do well in time to submit, and for (6) wrongs 
done, make satisfaction or acknowledgment as 22 years 
passed their Pattent was sued to a Quo Warranto, 
and sent for 33 ; if thirty more Queries be added, as 
for instance three or four, denying Appeals 3 \ Print- 



32. "How can he get wisdom that 
holdeth the plough, and that glorieth 
in the goad : that driveth oxen, and is 
occupied in their labours, and whose 
talk is of bullocks. They shall not be 
sought for in publick council, nor set 
high in the .congregation : they shall 
not sit on the judges seat nor under- 
stand the sentence of judgement : they 
cannotdeclare justice and judgement : 
and they shall not be found when par- 
ables are spoken." (Ecclesiasticus, 
chap, xxxviii, v. 25, 33.) This reference 
is obscure, although it must have been 
a part of current contemporaneous 
gossip, as the following extract from 
the York County Court Records, dated 
23 June, 1G55, would seem to indicate : 
" Wee prsent Jonathan Thing for 
speakeing discornfully of the Courte 
of York saying no question but you 
may cast any cause at the Courte of 
Yorke so long as Harry the Coatch- 
inan sits Judge/' 

33. The writ and judgment may 
be seen in Hazard [Collections, i, 
423-425], and Hutchinson [Collection 
of Original Papers, lul-lOE] The 



ing 



charges, fourteen in number, relate, 
not only to the alleged usurpation 
and abuse of powers, but to the or- 
dinary exercise of powers delegated 
by the charter ; so that JLhe proceed- 
ings against the Governor and Com- 
pany rested partly upon the theory 
that the charter was ab initio invalid. 
34. The right of appeal from their 
decrees to the King of England, or 
Parliament, was resolutely denied by 
the Massachusetts magistrates. This 
assumption of sovereign authority 
was maintained by them from the 
first moment as one of the funda- 
mental principles of their complete 
independence of the crown. In the 
well-known case of the Episcopalians 
(Maverick, Child, Eo wle, Dand, Vas- 
sal and others), who were heavily 
fined for presuming to petition for 
freedom of worship, and who at- 
tempted to carry an appeal to Eng- 
land from such unjust persecution, 
the Elders drew up, at the request of 
the General Court, a formal declara- 
tion of their position: "We con- 
ceive," they say, " that, in point of 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



33 



in<2* 3S , Coining 36 , and that his 



Government, we have granted by 
patent, such fail and ample power of 
choosing all officers that shall com- 
mand and rule over us, of making all 
laws and rules of our obedience, and 
of a full and final determination of all 
causes in the administration of jus- 
tice, that no appeals or other ways of 
interrupting our proceedings do lie 
against us." [Winthrop, Journal, ii, 
278-283: comp. Mass. Col. Rec. ii, 
162, 171, 175.] 

35. This reference to " Printing " 
is probably meant to convey the ur- 
gent necessity for a censorship of the 
press in Massachusetts, which, since 
1639, when it was first established at 
Cambridge, had enjoyed the utmost 
freedom in printing all the sinister 
opinions and utterances of the dis- 
loyal separatists and independents 
who lived in the country. " The first 
thing which was printed," says Win- 
throp, " was the Freemans oath," a 
treasonable covenant which ignored 
the fealty to the crown of England 
and bound the subscriber to recog- 
nize the authority of Massachusetts 
as supreme. [Journal, i, 2bd: comp. 
Palfrey, New England, ii, 7.] A cen- 
sorship had previously been proposed 
by the Deputies as early as 1019, but 
when it came before the Magistrates 
they rejected it. [Mass. Archives, 
lviii, 11.] In 1602, after the receipt 
of the letter of Kimz Chas. II, dated 



Majesties Coyn from i2d. 

to 

28 June, of that year, the General 
Court revived the measure 8 October 
following, but abolished it at the next 
session. [Mas. Col. Pec. IV (ii,) 02, 

7a] 

36. In 1052, " the General Court," 
writes Hull, "ordered a mint set up, 
and to coin it, bringing it to the sterl- 
ing standard for fineness, and for 
weight every shilling to be three pen- 
nyweights : ie.,M. at 5s.peroz." In 
this brief note, John Hull, the mint- 
master, explains the whole difference 
between the Massachusetts and the 
English coinage. The shilling of the 
former weighed three dwts., while 
the latter weighed almost four. The 
Massachusetts shilling, to be exact, 
weighed 72.85 grains and the English 
shilling 93 grains. This shortage in 
the New England coin, winch went 
to the mint-master, as his royalty, 
made the " Pine-tree shilling" of the 
value of 9d., and the pound sterling 
held the same relative proportion of 
three to four. [Diary, Archajjlogia 
Americana, iii, 145, 2S4: comp. Mass. 
Col. Pec. IV, (i,) 81, 101,] When 
complaint was finally made to Eng- 
land about this coinage, in 1002, two 
years after the publication of this 
book, Sir Thomas Temple quieted 
the indignation of the " Merrie Mon- 
arch " by explaining that the tree on 
the coin was the royal oak, which 
after the battle of Worcester had pre- 



34 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



to 9cL, the Jurisdiction of Admiralty 37 , English Collors. 3S 
By such proceedings the Country is held despicable, 
and an Odium cast on it, by the most unjust and unad- 
vised proceedings of one particular Pattent and place of 
Boston, which, if others have their Rights, is not one 6th. 
part of the Country, and but one of thirty other Pattents, 
by the sad distractions of the Times ; here divers Min- 
isters went thither for the good of the Cause, as they 
said, returned for the Loaves sake, as Mr. Hueh Peters, 
with twenty more of his Tribe ; 39 and some other men 

of 



served his Majesty's life, and that the 
Massachusetts magistrates had per- 
petuated this emblem as a token of 
their loyalty ! [Mollis Memoirs, i, 
397.] 

37. It may be supposed that this 
suggestion concerning the "Jurisdic- 
tion of Admiralty " related to the 
functions exercised by the General 
Court in maritime affairs. As an ex- 
ample of the invidious distinctions 
made against loyal subjects of the 
crown may be cited the exemption 
of vessels belonging to friends of the 
Parliamentary party from the pay- 
ment of tonnage and anchorage taxes, 
which were levied on all English and 
foreign vessels coming into the har- 
bor. [Winthrop, Journal, ii, 236.] 

38. This refers, of course, to Endi- 
cott's well known mutilation of the 
flag, in 1634, at Salem. " Much mat r 



" ter was made of this as fearing it 
" would be taken as an act of rebel- 
lion, or of like high nature, in de- 
" facing the king's colors ; though the 
" truth were, it was done upon this 
" opinion, that the red cross was given 
" to the King of England by the Pope 
" as an ensign of victory, and so a su- 
" perstitious thing, and a relic of An- 
"ticbrist." [Winthrop, Journal, i, 
14G; comp. Backus, History of the 
Baptists, i, 445.] It was restored 22 
May, 1651, by order of the General 
Court, "till the State of England 
shall alter the same, which we much 
desire." [Mass. Col. Bee. iii, 224 ] 

39. Hugh Peter leads the. list of 
New England ministers who returned 
to Old England, during the Civil War, 
" for the Eoaves sake." He became 
chaplain to Cromwell, and walked 
with John Milton at his funeral. 



1762905 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



of great esteem, as Sir Henry Vane, Sir R. Saltonstall, 
and an Agmen of men of all sorts, all highly preferred 
in Church, State, Army, Navy, Custom house, 40 &c., and 
some of no Literature, to preach and Beneficed, and 
plundering here violently; it has a worm in the root 
in this time, the ablest Ministers and Magistrates dead, 
and some gone. There is some good Gentlemen yet, 
as Mr. Indicoat, Mr. Bellingham, 41 Mr. Denison, but they 
have no power, the Country act as a Free State, the 

Deputies 



[ Burton, Diary, ii, 524.] John Wood- 
bridge secured a chaplaincy in the 
Parliamentary army ; William Ilooke 
was one of the numerous salaried re- 
ligious advisers to Cromwell, and so 
the list extends through the names of 
Welde, Mather, Firmin, Knowles, 
Bulkley and a dozen others, mostly 
graduates of Harvard College. [Pal- 
frey, New England, i, 586.] 

40. Stephen Winthrop, son of the 
Governor, became one of the Parlia- 
mentary Major Generals ; Robert 
Sedgwick of Charlestown, one of 
Cromwell's Generals; John Leverett, 
subsequently Governor of Massachu- 
setts.oneof his subalterns; Stoughton, 
of Pequot War fame, commanded a 
regiment in the Parliameniary army; 
Edward Hopkins, Governor of Con- 
necticut, became a member of Parlia- 
ment and Warden of the Fleet, and 
Edward Winslow a Commissioner, 
was given command of a naval force 



sent against Jamaica. [Palfrey, New 
England, i, 585-580.] 

41. Winthrop tells us that Richard 
Bellingham was disgusted at "finding 
" that some other of the magistrates 
" bare more sway with the people 
"than himself." [Journal, ii, 50. | 
The political party controlled by Win- 
throp, usually in the majority, were 
jealous of the popularity of Belling- 
ham, who had in 1641, defeated their 
candidate for the chief magistracy. 
Winthrop and his followers never for- 
gave this affront, and, at every oppor- 
tunity, he published his prejudices 
against him, as he had in previous 
years attacked Vane and Endicott, 
who had likewise superseded him. 
Palfrey, who follows implicitly the 
opinions of Winthrop upon his polit- 
ical rivals and contemporaries, calls 
him the "bilious Mr. Bellingham," 
and in his review of the changes of 
administration from year to year, gives 



& 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



Deputies first, they as the Ministers will ; so if the Min- 
isters and Deputies enter on mens Estates and Lands, 
as they have done, as I shall shew, and subjugate all 
other Patten ts, and make them Town-ships ; We that 
first ventured must petition, our sometimes servants to 
be good to their Masters Children ; what Law can we 
have or expect that be of the Church of England, they In- 
dependents, so our Antagonists, incom (7) petent Judges, 
being parties in action, and opposite in Religion : Let 
it be observed that if in ten years they came to this 
height, what in these twenty, having so inriched them- 
selves in Wealth, Strength, and Fortifications, that if 
they Fortifie Piscataqua River for themselves as they 
have subjugated it, and now Arm against the Dutch new 
Neatherland, with their united Collonies, they may be 
invincible States of America. If any object the con- 
trary, I shall make it appear ; let Major Robert Sedg- 
wick, & Capt. Leveret, Nova Scotia France, Business be 
a president, for the difficulty, charges, and danger, if not 
in time prevented, may be more obnoxious to England, 
than ever the Hollander was 'to the King of Spain. All 
the power is in the Independent way, yet three to one 

out ; 



some interesting statements of the 
relations of the several factions among 
the puritans. Bellingham was Assist- 
ant, 10C0-1039, 1014-1052; Deputy 



Governor, 1005, 1040, 1055-1004 ; Gov- 
ernor, 1041, 1(554, 1005-1007. [New 
England, i, 011, 010, 428 : ii, 154.] 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



37 



out ; 42 and his Majesty has to my knowledge as Loyal 
Subjects as any in England: in short time they will be 
in confusion in themselves, the Country wholesome, 
pleasant ; and if good Society and English Government 
were there, people would rather live there, than in 
Africk, Greece, Italy, France, Spain, or England ; it 
transcends all the Baltick Seas, and affords all or any 
Commodity they have, & more plenty of sundry sorts, 
and of more concernment to his Majesty, than if all the 
Baltic Seas were annexed to his Empire ; as in a short 
Epitomy and Anotamy of those countries, from.. New- 
found-land to Cape Florida, with the Mapps and Cards 
shall appear, with Collections of 55 years Pilgrimage: it 
is want of Charity in the Independent Ministers, the 
Commons are possessed they are all Israelites, and we 
Egyptians, of the Orthodox and true Church of Eng- 
land, 



42. " Three parts of the people of 
the country," said Lechford in 1040, 
" remain out of the church," [Flaine 
Dealing, 73, j and as a consequence, 
the franchise being limited to com- 
municants of their churches, the gov- 
erment was vested in the hands of a 
minority. At the date of the confed- 
eration of the colonies (1013) only 
170S persons had been invested with 
citizenship in Massachusetts. [Mass. 
Col. Kec. i, 300-379: ii, 291, 293.] 
The only colony besides Massacbu- 
5 



setts which had such a restriction, 
was New Haven ; and in these two 
colonies the majority of the inhab- 
itants, of mature age, were mere 
wards of the commonwealth, without 
a voice in its legislation, except the 
scanty privilege " by speech or writ- 
ing, to move any lawful, season- 
able and material question, or to 
" present any necessary motion, com- 
'* plaint, petition, bill, or information." 
[Body of Liberties, 3 Mass. Hist. 
Coll. viii, 218.J 



33 



NEW ENGLAND'S VINDICATION. 



land, and reject old Planters that made way for them ; 
Mr. Sa. Maverick for one, the most Hospitable for en- 
tertainment of People of all sorts, 43 A (S) merica afforded 
not, nor does the like, yet never free of Averices and 
troubles to many, some Life Imprisonment, Illegal Sub- 
version, and Usurping others Rights: I could wish they 
had so much Charity as Turk or Romish, do as you 
would be done to ; no Salvation without Restitution if 
able, not so much as Israelites and Egyptians, 44 and not 
to reward evil for good: If this is too short or tart, I 
shall be more copious with their proceedings with us, 
whom you call, without Authenticated, by proceedings 
of their Courts, with their Magistrates Hands ; and 
though you have some good, godly, and able Ministers, 
some are to be blamed for irreverend speaking against 
ours, and they worse. 

Finis. 



43. Maverick's hospitality appears 
to have been proverbial in colonial 
times. As early as 1G:JS we have the 
following testimony of his reputation 
as a host: "The tenth day, I went 
upone Noddles Ifland to Mr. Samuel 
Maverick (for my paffage) the only 
hofpitable man in all the Countrey 
giving entertainment to all Comers 
gratis." [Josselyn, Two Voyages, 
12.] The rigid Puritan, Edward 
Johnson, says that he was " a man of 
very loving and curteous behaviour, 
very ready to entertaine strangers." 



[Wonder- Working Providence, c. 
xvii.] 

44. This expression used by the 
author was a favorite one with God- 
frey, who used it as a sarcastically to 
express the disdain with which the 
godly people of the " Bay " regarded 
the inhabitants of Maine. In his 
paper of 19 February, 1000, after re- 
hearsing his wrongs, he says : " In 
fyne they were Izerelites, I an Egipi- 
tian." He employs the simile twice 
in that document. [Colonial Tapers 
xx, 19. See Appendix.] 



APPENDIX 



Pedigree of Gardiner of Hertfordshire. 

Compiled from Visitation of Hertfordshire, 1634, p. 150 b. ; Chauncy, History of Hertfordshire, 418, 419, 
519,527; Clutterbuck, History of Hertfordshire, ii, 182; iii, 278. 



. GAKDINEB = 



Arms : Per pale, 



and gu. 



Crest: Two halberds 
entwined with 
ppr. 



Edward = Elizabeth Pratt, 
d.'i Apr'., lo'ii'. ' of >urre\ , i-'sq. ' 



Fishmonger of 

London, 
obit Nov. 1655. s. 1 



Thomas Gardiner, 

oi Rennesly, Standon, Herts., 

obit 1520. 

m. Joan 



(3.) Edward, 
younger son, 
of Thundridge. 



Henry = Mary Spring, 



(2) 

= Mary Hayward, 

of Mieiiiiel MiiYuaiM, 

of Tungrlilne Hall, Surrey, 

Esq., by wife 

Knighton. 



John. 

of Jenningsbury, 
Esq.-m. Anne, 

daughter of Henry 
llaviv.ud of Tuug- 
ri.lt". Surrey. Esq. 

in. .2 :-Sn( . 1.V.S, 
Fran :i3 lioyer, gent. 



She 



I 
Mary. 



Michael, 
m. 1 Sept., 1583, 
Margaret llrowne 



1 III 

Edward = Martha Pettiward, Henry, James, Mary, 

b. Jan., loin, daughter of linger, hai-l. l'i \" ov., bapc 1" .lune, bani.l.'n 

d. 4 May, 1601. of run, ey, Surrey, 1815. 1019. 1610-11. 

citiz. n and salttr, of London, bur. .10 N'ov,, = 

she b. . . 1013. 1615. James 

d. 11 Feb., 1GS1-2. Watts. 


EdJard 




1 
IIEIVRY, 

the author (? 


1 1 
Edward. Roger. 
d. 15 Jan., 1034-5. tapt. 27 July, 
1636. 
d. 13 April, 
1658. 


1 
John = Sarah Gierke, 
bapt. If, Mch., (30 J eh., ln.so, dm of Henry 

1642-3. | Clerke, citizen 
d. 29 Oct., 1693. and scrivener of 
London. 

b... 1660. 

d. 12 July, 1693, 


Uenjamin 

d! 18 Feb.',' 

Mary, dau 
Stanley, o 
low Green 


1652. 
1704->5. 

of Thos. 

Herts., Esq. 


1 1 1 

Martha. 
Mary. 

Sarah. 



Du.tster 
Family. 



Colonial Papers, Pcblic Record Office, xiii, 79. Printed Broadside. 



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 



The Parliament of the Commonwealth of England and 
the Dominions thereto belong-in^. The Humble 
Petition of Edward Godfrey, Oliver Godfrey, Far- 
dinad Gorges, Robert Nason, and Edward Rigby, 
Henry Gardner, and sundry others of Pattentees 
and Inhabitants of the Provinces of Mayne and 
Liconia in New England. 

Most Humbly sheweth Sundry of your Petitioners 
having bin versed in the Oriental parts of the World, in 
the same Latitude as New England is to the West, hop- 
ing to fix them and their Posterities for the Honour of 
God, good of the Nation, and propagating the gospel, 
with hope of improvement for future, at great charges 
procured sundry Pattents in the parts of America call'd 
New-England; with divers priviledges as may appear: 

possessed 



42 APPENDIX. 

possessed themselves of divers tracts, and parcels of 
Land, where never any Christian Inhabited, and for the 
space of 30 years past have Inhabited the same. In the 
first accompanied with many difficulties and charges ; 
to loss of nigh £ 100.000, and some of our nearest Rela- 
tions slain by the Indians; have propagated and popu- 
lated that part of the Country without one-penny of the 
vast sums of the Benevolences others (as the Machesusets) 
have had out of England ; and quietly and peaceably 
governed our selves by derivation from England, and 
power of our priviledges by Pattents ; and that as nigh 
as possible to the Laws of England, and ever acknowl- 
edged by the Gentlemen of the Machesusets as distinct 
from theirs ; as we under all their hands can shew. And 
now this Honourable State, and all our Collonies in 
America receive more benefit from those parts then from 
all New-England besides. But of late we taking notice 
of Acts of Parliament [i6]4S expressing and command- 
ing all our Collonies in America should take the Ingage- 
ment and accordingly we did proceed in issuing out our 
Warrants, and taking and giving the Ingagement and 
advised this Honourable State thereof; as may appear: 
which the Inhabitants of the Machesusets did not. 
Upon that and other pretences by strong hand and 
menaces to bring all or the most part of that vast 

Country 



APPENDIX. 43 

Country under their power and subjection have sub- 
verted the Ancient Government, deprived us of our 
priviledges, Pattents, and Interest therein : and imposed 
on us an oath of Fidelity to their State, without any 
relation to England :* to somes utter ruine, and their 
Families undoing: as by sundry Petitions and References 
by the late both Protectors may appear. But in regard 
of mutation of Government nothing effected. Godfrey 
(one of the Petitioners, being 75 years of Age) coming 
and hoping for some redress and relief 4 years here 
expended, finds the cure as bad as the disease : having 
served his Country 46 years in civil Imployment, at his 
own great charge as by ample and Honourable testimo- 
nies may appear, of his extream poverty is not ashamed. 
Humbly desireth the buisness may be taken into consid- 
eration either by your Honours, or the Referees, and 
fully examined ; for the Honour of God, good of his 
Country, which he ever esteemed as dear as his life, and 
the reputation of him and his ruinated Family, as precious 
as his Eyes : his Proceedings and Collections of 55 years 
Pilgrimage may be made manifest ; and the rather as he 
most humbly conceives, there is matters of high con- 
cernment of State involved in it. From Newfound-land, 

to 



*In the margin of the broadside 
at this point Governor Godfrey wrote 
this note with a pen : " Whatever 



my Boddy was inforsed unto Heaven 
knowes my soule did not consent 
unto." 



44 APPENDIX. 

to Cape Florida, he hath the Mapps, and Cards, of his 
own, French, Dutch, and English, of which at present 
he presents these few some observations or notes : 

First. If the Maps and Cards were spherically drawn 
and Printed, and each Pattents to bee bounded, their 
acknowledgements looked into, what not performed or 
not granted in, the Honourable State to grant, Custom- 
ers would not be wanting. 

Secondly. For Newfound-land the Corn sown at 
vast charges, Ions: time and many miseries, and losses 
sustained, I know by experience, at present profitable to 
the Nation yet falls for want of Harvesting. 

Thirdly. Nova Francia, Scotia, Cape Britton, if 
taken into consideration how the French in some parts 
did proceed with us, how we at present, and what may 
be (if rightly undertaken by some corporation of the 
West Country as Barnstable or the like) may be the 
profltablest that ever the English undertooke in America. 

Fourthly. The Pattent of the Machesusets one of 
30 besides being bounded by themselves 30. years past 
according to their limits, which is 50 miles by Sea Shore, 
3 miles South of Charles River, 3 miles North of Merri- 
mack their unlimited power to ingrasp so many other 
Pattents, (some granted before theirs) their proceeding 

how 



APPENDIX. 45 

how most dangerous, perjudicial, and unprofitable to 
this Honourable State, under favour can shew. 

Fifthly. The Dutch, or New Netherlands, their in- 
trusion, insulting, unjust claim, the Center, Heart and 
Bowels, of the Country, Hudsons River, this year the 
mouth, Delewar Bay, and Canada River to be theirs, 
and grant sundry Pattents (their proceedings he hath at 
large:) 55 years we have beat the Bush, now they catch 
the Bird. 

The Premises considered, the English are better fixed 
in those parts, for Health, Trade, discovery, then the 
Spaniards, in the West India, breeding able Seamen, 
building Shipping; Fishing, Subduing, numerous Na- 
tions to us, and them to Christ, and more Sea-men bred, 
Shipping imployed, Trade, and Profit from those parts 
at present is reaped then all England had 50 years past. 
And your Petitioners shall pray &c. 

[At the bottom of the page on which the petition is 
printed is written the following memorandum by Gov- 
ernor Godfrey.] 

Forpropagating and planting Jamaca let the sault 
panes be clered and sawe mylls erected yf but by horses, 
you may have from our north parts, all sortes of provi- 
tions and supplyes of men seasond of the Arreares of 
fishing viadges att i chardges as out of ould England. 

6 



46 APPENDIX. 

[Endorsed] 

A Petition of Mr. Godfrey concerning his interests 
in New England. 

This was after Richard Cromwell was out. 



Colonial Papers, Public Record Office, xx, 19. 

Mr. Godfreys Information of a Committee sitting 
at Coopers Haee on behalf of the Massachu- 
setts. 

According to your Commands I have endeavoured 
to screw into the Great Benevolences that have been so 
publicly knowne to propagate the Gospell in New Eng- 
land, but in efect to bee there a free Stat the privat 
acting as yet I conseall, there is a snake in the weeds. 

There is a Corporation sitting formerly at Cooper's 
Hall commonly one Satterdayes from 9 to 10 o'clock 
for the Business. Hugh Peeters confessed of sixty thou- 
sand pounds and the last yeare they said they had pur- 
chesed land to about iooo,/" per ann: but shrunk now to 
JOOjC, the [y] Izerilites, I an Egyptian conqured of them 

■ by 



APPENDIX. 47 

by the teeth of their swords: I most humbly petition to 
have something heer to relieve me 8 years exturped of 
my meanes with obligation what I had heere should be 
there repaid out of the Gleanings of my harvest they 
had reaped and for my most faithful service 30 years 
amongst them, the first planter, a vast estat spent my 
nearest relation in the discovery slain by the Indians and 
my onely sonne ruenated by the Cuntery and I a Gov- 
ernor 20 yeares and my services in his Majesty's time 
of Charles the fyrst for them and the Country in generall. 
There Aneswer was there Bretherins: ther and heer 
could not bread order or to that effect. In fyne they were 
Izerelites, I an Egiptian. The stat of the business is 
there is one Smith that I met att Mr. Attorney Gen- 
eralis sollicits to have there Pattent removed. The 
Clarke or Secretary is one Mr. Houper att Turner hall 
in Philpot lane. 

M r " Asshworth att the Keaye in watling street 
Alderman Peake at 3 Arrowes in Cannon Street 
M r - Roffe a scrivener at backside of the exchange 
near the shippe tavern. 

M r Michelson att the Angell a linen drapers in 
cheapside. 

M r * Walner a wollen draper in Gratious street. 
M r - Bell att Tower Street. 

None 



48 APPENDIX. 

None eether there or heer had any Acting in these 
affayres that did not idolize the Church Covenant. 

The Great mulcts and fynes uppon thos of the Church 
of England onely for petitioning to have the liberty of 
free born Englishmen can shew since a considerable 
vallue. Ther tribut of the Indianes they yearly receive 
a considerable sum. This for (the) present till I see you 
I rest yours to be commanded. 

London Adi 19, feb : 60. 

[This paper enclosed the document which follows.] 




Colonial Papers, Public Record Office, xv, 20. 

For the honourable Sir Edward Nicolas Knight 
Secretary to his Majesty thes present: 

Honoured Sir 

I formerly gave you in Print an Appendax to the 
petition to the usurper Cromwell and Parliament con- 

sarning 



APPENDIX. 49 

sarning the North part of America Granted by bothe 
the last kings of ever blessed memory, but held in these 
times one particular Pattent of the Massachusetts att 
Boston in New England have usurped all most all the 
Cuntery to ther subjection being Gente inemica to loy- 
alty in practice to bee a free state being turned out of 
my Pattent for lyoly came to give an account of 55 
yeares travell of which 46 in civell employment for 
my Cuntery 27 there aged 77 years. If an object of 
pitty move you not yet piety for Gods Glory and profit 
to his Majesty and securing those parts to his majestys 
dew obedience suddenly you will vouchsafe to affourd a 
few mynutes to peruse the needfull may att present bee 
presented by Commition, which hereafter may be dan- 
gerous and chargeable of hyer consarnment than if all 
the Baltic Sea were annexed to his Majestys Empier. 
If I cannot bee hard have I formed my Duty having 
suffered 8 yeares and more for all my services for my 
Cuntery like to perish for want I rest. 
1 Your honours Sarvant 

to be commanded 

EDWARD GODFREY. 

[Endorsed: 15 July, 1660. 

Mr. Edward Godfrey 
concerning America and New England.] 



5o APPENDIX. 



Colonial Papers, Public Record Office, xv, 32. 

Letter and Information of Godfrey concerning the 
usurpation of boston : 

Honored Sir. 

With most humble thanks for your favorable Aspect 
uppon me in this my totall Eclipsed Condition I pre- 
sume to give you thes few lynes for Capt : Jo : Leverets 
not appering as Agent for the Massachusetts. 

I. To considder his acting ther in subjugating the 
Estern parts in New England presumtiusly and auda- 
tiusly without any power from England the proceeding 
if he will not shew I have a Coppy and Jo : Bakers 
depositin heer. After 3 yeares there spent in vane for 
redress, I came for England meeting hime shewed him 
my papers and Complaints hee wished mee to stay tell 
he had one store of Letters for redress 2 years stayed 
noe Aneswer. 

2 : Then I got a reference from O : P :* nothing 
effeted then one from R : P :t the referes met divers 

times, 



♦Oliver, Protector, t Richard, Protector. 



APPENDIX. 51 

times, hee bid them acte and acknowledge him selfe 
Agent for the Mathechusetts. 

3 : This last year M r ' Beckes deposition proves him 
Agent then. 

4: In this Reference now of Mason and Godfrey 
though att fyrst hee refused yet a procise being fixed one 
the Exchange and delivered 24 hee made an excuse. 

5 : The next meeting hee excused and sent a Letter 
with a Copy of one sent him from ther Court accusing 
the receipt, and Copy of our petition which Answer is 
most unjust and untrue as by the sundry depositions 
may appeer. 

His presenting the Cuntery Adresses to his Majesty. 
I beseech you remember to be with the referes at 
Doctors Commons being Tusday 19 th of this instant 
march. 

Your sarvant to bee commanded, 

ED: GODFREY. 

Consarning the Regiment of New England for his 
Majesty's best security and safest waye as I humbly 
conceve in regard I knowe the Cuntery from the fyrst 
discovery lost my nearest relation slane by the Indians 
and I having faithfully att my owne Charge served the 
Cuntery 25 years by duble recognisence my oth to my 

God 



52 APPENDIX. 

God my discression experience and fidelity considered: 
which prayse bee God I performed till evicted by the 
Mathechusetts you know in part my only sonne his life 
and time there spent 2 viages and comming for to trans- 
port his wife and family heering of my ruen abides yet 
heer I presume to give you thes few lines. 

I ever tould you that Pascattowaie River and the 
p'vince of Maine is of more consarnment to his Ma ie for 
trade present and futuer w th discovery of the Countery 
than all New England besides, and other reasons as by 
the mappes may appeer, wheather it bee not fitting yf a 
generall gov 1 * should goe the jurisdiction of thos Estern 
p ts may not bee regulated by comition as formerly thirty 
(years) w th out complaint ther or heer nor never quest- 
coned till 1652. Boston would be a free stat and sundry 
pattents.* 

1. The distance ny 80 miles dangerus by sea and 
in wynter not pregnable for divers reasons as snow 
wading &c. 

2. It will discurridg any publique men to undertake 
the like action being roume for many 1000 famylies, 
after 30 years to bee debarred of ther priviledges. 

3. His Ma t0 will have more power over booth, the 

one 



* Meaning that Boston and the various patents in Maine, New Hampshire et 
als. would be free states. A wise and prophetic forecast of our present system. 



APPENDIX. 



53 



one to bee instrumentall to keepe the other in its dew- 
obedience. 

4. It will cause an emulation who shall give the 
best acc° of the actions to the Supreme power on w ch all 
the pattentes depend. 

5. Some of the Pattentes have ther Relation heer 
and for extracting long experience in the Countery, 
equal! with any in Boston and have ever acted for his 
Ma tes interest, have pattents com rs fornVly and now liv- 
ing ar Capt Henery Josseline, Capt Francis Champer- 
none, M r Tho. Jourdan an orthodox devine for the 
Church of England and of great p l s and estate, M r Jo : 
Geffard goeth this yeare M r Joseph Mason ther for Ed : 
Godfrey hee is to ould to acte, yet Oliver Godfrey his 
sonne and grandchild being well versed in the Countery 
yf com'ded will w tu the p'sidentes of Ed : Godfrey assist 
to the utter most ther life and power. Excuse my bold- 
ness being y r ever obliged servant to be com'ded. 

Ed: GODFREY. 

[Dated 14 March 1660. Part of the address is torn 

away, the" remainder is : For the Reg Thomas 

(Povey?). It is endorsed as follows: The information 
of Mr. Edward Godfrey sometimes Governor of the 
Province of Mayne concerning the consequence of that 
Province and the usurpation of the Bostoners.] 
7 



54 APPENDIX. 



Colonial Papers, Public Record Office. 

Sir: 

I haue formly wrot you a breefe description of the 
pVince of Mayne, how it standeth att p'sent, know y l 
Columbus offered the discovery of the West India to 
Henery the 7 th , you ar att present offered a tracte of 
lande all reddy discovered and in pt populated w th Inglish 
w ch for futuer and discovery is of more consarnement 
then any pt of America as yet settled on by the English 
and that you may have p'sent p'fit w th out i d charges, 
honor and good to yo r selves w th you and my Lord 
Roberts sonne M r Hender, glory to God, good to his 
Ma ti0 benyfit to yo r selves and good to the whole countery. 
Send but for Gorges to M r Francis Lutterells at Grase 
Inn and taulke w th him you will fynd him a man capable 
of such a great busines to bee the undoeing of soe many 
loyall subjects and suffer thos p'tes of the w ch till 1652 
had ever lived according to his Ma te lawes as by the re- 
port you know and y r hand testifieth,* but now is mad 

a receptacle 



• Keport of Commissioners (of whom Mr. Thomas Povey was one) made to 
the Kins in 1001, favorabie to Mason and Godfrey. 






APPENDIX. 



55 



a receptacle of those of Heugh Peeter, Vane: Venner: 
Baker: Potter, who to avoycl ther p'ciples fly theether 
(con sacer in sacro) for shelter and keep us loyall sub- 
jects out of our inheritance after thirty yeares possession 
soe deerly bought now in great mysery except God rayes 
freunds. I humblie desyer you to taulke w th my lord 
Roberts sonne'M r Hender and that I may know y r reso- 
lution, though Gorges grandes have plundered my house 
in New England and possessed themselves of most of 
my collections, records p'sidents and paps of fifty-five 
yeares travell I have sufficient heer to guid a right course 
and settell thos pts as formly to any reasonable" man, 
and that w th out i d charges but p'sent p'fitt to the under- 
takers. I humbly crave two words in answer and rest. 

Yo r sarvant to be considered, 

Ludgat, Adi 7 Aprill 63. EDWARD GODFREY. 

At the cloesing heerof nuse is brought me that one 
M r Nicoles belonging to the Duke of Yorke is to goe for 
New England w cb if you may inform him of me, I have 
all passages of forty yeares in that countery will serve 
him and you what is needful. 

EDWARD GODFREY. 



56 APPENDIX. 



Egerton- MSS. 2395, British Museum, ff. 397-111* 

A BRIEFE DISCRIPTION OF NEW ENGLAND 

AND THE SEVERALL TOWNES 

THEREIN, 

TOGETHER WITH THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT THEREOF. 

(Extract.) .» 

About the yeare 1626 or 1627 there was a Patent 
granted by his Maty es : Royal Father of ever blessed 
Memory to certaine Gentlemen and Merchants, for the 
Tract of land befor mencond, and power given them by 
the same to incorporate themselfes into a body pollitick 

the 



* By the courtesy of John T. Hassam, Esq., of Boston, Mass., the editor is 
allowed to make use of early sheets of the reprint of this manuscript to illustrate 
the subject of the treatment of Episcopalians and Royalists in New England by 
the Puritans of Massachusetts, The discovery of this valuable document is a 
sample of the fruits of the mission undertaken by Mr. Henry Fitz-Gilbert Waters 
as the agent of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society, now in London, 
for the purpose of searching the public archives of England for material to 
illustrate and develop the family and general history of colonial America. The 
entire paper may be consulted in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society for October, 1884, and in the New England Genealogical Register for 
January, 1885. 



APPENDIX. 57 

the Governor and all other officers to be Annually 
chosen by the Majo r part of the inhabitants, ffreholders. 
As soon as the grant was confirmed, they chose here on 
M r Mathew Craddock Governo r and one Goffe deputy ; 
They forthwith sent over one M r Endicott, Governor* 
as deputy to rule over us the Inhabitants which had 
leived there long befor their Patent was granted, and 
some had Patents preceding theirs, had he had pouer 
according to his will he had ruled us to y e purpose ; 
But within two yeares after they sent ower one M r John 
Winthrope Governor and with him a Company of As- 
sistants all Chosen here in England without the Knowl- 
edge or Consent of them that then leived there or of 
those which came with them. 

This Governo r and his Councill, not long after their 
Aryvall made a law that no man should be admitted a 
Freeman, and soe Consequently have any voyce in Elec- 
tion of Officers Civill or Military, but such as were first 
entered into Church covenant and brought Certificate 
of it, let there Estates, and accordingly there portion of 
land be never soe great, and there taxes towards publick 
Charges. . Nor could any competency of Knowledge or 
inoffensivenesse of liveing or conversation usher a man 

into 



*This word " Governor " was interlined over the word " as," and unfortunately 
no caret mark made to show its intended place. 



53 APPENDIX. 

into there Church fellowship, unless he would also 
acknowledge the discipline of the Church of England 
to be erroneous and to renounce it, which very many 
never condescended unto, so that on this account the 
far great Number of his Majesties loyal subjects there 
never injoyed those priviledges intended by his Royall 
ffather in his Grant. And upon this very accompt also, 
if not being Joyned in Church ffellowship many Thow- 
zands have been debarred the Sacrament of the Lords 
Supper although of Competent knowledg, and of honest 
life and Godly Conversation, and a very great Number 
are unbaptized. I know some neer 30 years old, 7 per- 
sons of Quality about 12 years since for petitioning for 
themselves & Neighbo 1 " 3 that they might have votes in 
Elections as ffreeholders or be ffreed from publick 
Charge, and be admitted to the Sacrament of the Lords 
Slipper and theire Children to Baptisme as Members of 
the Church of England, and have liberty to have Minis- 
ters among themselves learned pious and Orthodox, no 
way dissonant from ye best Reformation in England, 
and desireincf alsoe to have a bodv of Lawes to be Es- 
tablished and published to prevent Arbitrary Tiranny, 
For thus desireing these three reasonable requests besids 
imprissonement and other indignitys, they were fined 
iooo 11 , a Notw'standing they Appealled to England, they 

were 



APPENDIX. 



59 



were forced to pay the same, and now also at great 
Charges to send one home to prosecute their appeal 
which proved to no Effect, That dismall Change falling 
out, Just at that time And they sending home hither 
one Edward Winslow a Smooth tounsrued Cunning 
fellow, who soon gott himselfe into Favo r of those then in 
Supreame power, against whom it was in vaine to strive, 
and soe they remained sufferers to this day. 

By what I have said it appears how the Major part 
of the Inhabitants are debarred of those Priviledges they 
ought to enjoy and were intended fo r them. How-they 
Esteem of the Church of England. Howfarr they owne 
his Mat'ie as haveing any power over them, or their 
Subjection to him ; This I know that not long after 
they arrived they defaced the Collou rs which they brought 
over with them, being the English Redd Cross terming 
.it a badcre of the Whore of Babelon. 

And not long after haveing received a Report that 
his Mat ie intended to send a Generall Governo r over, 
and being informed by a Shallop that they had seen a 
great shipe and a smaller one goe into Cape Ann Har- 
bo r about 8 Leagues from Boston There was an Alarme 
presently given and early in the Morning being Sab- 
bath day all the Traine Bands in Boston, and Townes 
adjacent were in Armes in the streets and posts were 

sent 



60 APPENDIX. 

sent to all other places to be in the same posture, in 
which they continued untill by theire scouts they found 
her to be a small shipe of Plymouth and a shallope that 
piloted her in. The generall and Publick report was 
that it was to oppose the landing of an Enemie a Gov- 
erno r sent from England, and with this they acquanted 
the Commanders. 

And about the year 1636 one Brooks hearing one 
Evers to vilifie the Goverment of England both Civill 
and Eclesiasticall, and saying that if a Generall Gov- 
erno r were sent over he- would kill him if he-could, and 
he knew the Magistrats would bear him out in it, of 
which Brooks complaining by way of Information, the 
matter was handled that Evers had nothing said to him, 
and Brookes forced to escape privatly for England. 

They also in the yeare 1646 & 1647 suffered a ship 
the Mary of Bristoll then standing out for the Kings 
Majestic to be taken by one Stagg haveing a Commis- 
sion from the Parliament, and conveyed away although 
they had promised them a protection. They also Or- 
dered the takeing downe of the Kings Armes and set- 
ting up the States, & the like by the Signe of the Kings 
head hanging before the doore of an Inne. And when 
that unhappy warr was between King and Parlia* they 
compelled every Commander of a Vessell that went out 

from 



APPENDIX. 61 

from thence to enter into Bond not to have any Com- 
merce with any place then holding out for the King, 
and in opposition to the then pretended power in Eng- 
land, Nor was there ever any Oath of Alleageance 
offered to any, but instead thereof they have framed two 
Oathes, which they impose on those which are made 
free. The other they terme the Oath of ffidelitie, which 
they force all to take that are above 16 yeares of age, a 
Coppy of it is as followeth — 

I. A. B. by Gods providence being an Inhabitant 
within the Jurisdiction of this Comon Wealth doe freely 
and sincerely acknowledge myselfe to be subject to the 
Government thereof. I doe hereby swear by the great 
and clreadfull name of the ever liveing God, that I will 
be true and Faithfull to the same, and will accordingly 
yeild assistance thereunto with my person, Estate, as in 
equity I am bound And will also truly endeavo 1- to 
maintaine and preserve all the Liberties and priviledges 
thereof, Submitting myselfe unto the wholesome Lawes 
made and established by the same. And further that I 
will not plot or practize any evill against it or consent 
to any that shall soe doe But will timely discover and 
reveall the same to Lawfull Authority nowhere established 
for the speedy preventing thereof. So Help me God 
in Our Lord Jesus Christ. 

By 

8 



62 APPENDIX. 

By this it may be judged what esteeme they have of 
the lawes of England, swearing theire subjects to sub- 
mite to lawes made only by themselfes, And indeed to 
Allea^e a Statute Law of England in one of their Courts 
would be a ridiculous thing, They likewise long since 
fell to covnins: of monies, melting downe all the English 
Coyne they can gett, every shilling makeing 13 d in their 
monies, And whereas they went over thither to injoy 
liberty of Conscience, in how high a measure have they 
denyed it to others there wittnesse theire debarring many 
from the Sacraments spoken of before meerly because 
they cannot Joyne with them in their Church-ffellowship, 
nor will they permitt any Lawfull Ministers that are or 
would come thither to administer them. Wittness also 
the Banishing so many to leave their habitations there, 
and seek places abroad elsewhere, meerly for differing 
in Judgment from them as the Hutchinsons and severall 
families with them, & that Honb le Lady the Lady Deb- 
orah Moody and severalls with her meerly for declareing 
themselfes moderate Anabaptists, Who found more 
favour and respect amongst the Dutch, then she did 
amongst the English, Many others also upon the same 
account needless to be named, And how many for not 
comeing to theire assemblies have been compelled to 
pay 5 s a peece for every Sabbath day they misse, besides 

what 



APPENDIX. 



63 



what they are forced to pay towards the maintenance of 
the Ministers, And very cruelly handled by whipping 
and imprissonment was M r Clark, Obadiah, Holmes, and 
others for teaching and praying in a private house on 
the Lords day, These and many other such like pro- 
ceedings which would by them have been judged Cruelty 
had they been inflicted on them here, have they used 
towards others there ; And for hanging the three Quakers 
last yeare I think few approved of it. 




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. 3 



THE GORGES SOCIETY. 



CONSTITUTION. 



Article I. — This Society shall be called the Gorges 
Society ; and it shall have for its object the publication 
of rare works, in print or manuscript, relating to America, 
and especially the State of Maine. 

Article II. — The officers of the Society shall be a 
President, three Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding Sec- 
retary, a Recording Secretary, and a Treasurer; who 
together shall form the Council of the Society. 

Article III. — Members may be added to the Society 
on the recommendation of any member and a confirm- 
atory vote of a majority of the Council. 

Libraries and other Institutions may hold member- 
ship, and be represented by an authorized agent. 

All members shall be entitled to and shall accept the 

volumes 



66 THE GORGES SOCIETY. 

volumes printed by the Society, as they are issued from 
time to time, at the prices fixed by the Council ; and 
membership shall be forfeited by a refusal or neglect to 
accept the said volumes. 

Any person may terminate his membership by resig- 
nation addressed in writing to the President ; provided, 
however, that he shall have previously paid for all volumes 
issued by the Society after the date of his election as a 
member. 

Article IV. — The management of the Society's af- 
fairs shall be vested in. the Council, which shall keep a 
faithful record of its proceedings, and report the same to 
the Society annually, at its General Meeting in January. 

Article V. — The Annual Meeting for the purpose of 
electing officers, hearing the report of the Council, audit- 
ing the Treasurer's account, and transacting other busi- 
ness, shall be held on the first Wednesday in January, 
at Portland, Maine. 

Article VI. — By-Laws for the more particular gov- 
ernment of the Society may be made or amended at any 
Annual Meeting. 

Article VII. — Amendments to the Constitution may 
be made at the Annual Meeting in January, by a three- 
fourths vote, provided that a copy of the same be trans- 
mitted to every member of the Society, at least two weeks 
previous to the time of voting thereon. 



CONSTITUTION. 67 



COUNCIL 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

i. The Society shall be administered on the mutual 
principle, and solely in the interest of American history. 

2. A volume shall be issued as often as the Council 
may deem practicable. 

3. An editor of each work to be issued shall be ap- 
pointed, who shall be a member of the Society, whose 
duty it shall be to prepare, arrange, and conduct the same 
through the press ; and, as he will necessarily be placed 
tinder obligations to scholars and others for assistance, 
and particularly for the loan of rare books, he shall be 
entitled to receive ten copies, to enable him to acknowl- 
edge and return any courtesies which he may have 
received. 

4. All editorial work and official service shall be 
performed gratuitously. 

5. All contracts connected with the publication of 
any work shall be laid before the Council indistinct 
specifications in writing, and be adopted by a vote of the 
Council, and entered in a book kept for that purpose ; and, 
when the publication of a volume is completed, its whole 

expense 



68 THE GORGES SOCIETY. 

expense shall be entered, with the items of its cost in 
full, in the same book. No member of the Council shall 
be a contractor for doing any part of the mechanical 
work of the publications. 

6. The price of each volume shall be a hundredth 
part of the cost of the edition, or as near to that as con- 
veniently may be ; and there shall be no other assess- 
ments levied upon the members of the Society. 

7. A sum, not exceeding six hundred dollars, may 
be held by the Council as a working capital ; and, when 
the balance in the treasury shall exceed that sum, the 
excess shall be divided, from time to time, among the 
members of the Society, by remitting either a part or the 
whole cost of a volume, as may be deemed expedient. 

8. All moneys belonging to the Society shall be de- 
posited in the Portland Savings Bank, in Portland, unless 
some other banking institution shall be designated by a 
vote of the Council ; and said moneys shall be entered in 
the name of the Society, subject to the order of the 
Treasurer. 

9. It shall be the duty of the President to call the 
Council together, whenever it may be necessary for the 
transaction of business, and to preside at its meetings. 

10. It shall be the duty of the Vice-Presidents to au- 
thorize all bills before their payment, to make an inventory 

of 



CONSTITUTION. 69 

of the property of the Society during the month preceding 
the annual meeting, and to report the same to the Council, 
and to audit the accounts of the Treasurer. 

11. It shall be the duty of the Corresponding Secre- 
tary to issue all general notices to the members, and to 
conduct the general correspondence of the Society. 

12. It shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary 
to keep a complete record of the proceedings both of the 
Society and of the Council, in a book provided for that 
purpose. 

13. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to forward 
to the members bills for the volumes, as they are issued ; 
to superintend the sending of the books ; to pay all bills 
authorized and indorsed by at least one Vice-President 
of the Society ; and to keep an accurate account of all 
moneys received and disbursed. 

14. No books shall be forwarded by the Treasurer 
to any member until the amount of the price fixed for 
the same shall have been received ; and any member 
neo;lectin£ to forward the said amount for one month 
after his notification, shall forfeit his membership. 



7o THE GORGES SOCIETY. 



Officers for 1884. 



President. 
JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER, Portland, Me. 

Vice-Presiden ts. 

JOHN MARSHALL BROWN, Portland, Me. 

WILLIAM EDWARD GOULD, Portland, Me. 
JOSEPH WHITE SYMONDS, Portland, Me. 

Corresponding See ret a ry. 
HENRY SWEETSER BURRAGE, Portland, Me. 

Recordiiig Secretary. 
GEORGE DOANE RAND, Portland, Me. 

Treasurer. 
HUBBARD WINSLOW BRYANT, Portland, Me. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



7* 



The Gorges Society. 



1884. 



Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. 
Allen, Stillman B. 
Anderson, John Farwell 
Banks, Charles Edward 

" Edward Prince 
Bartlett, John Russell 
Barrett, Franklin Ripley 
Barton, Edmund Mills 
Baxter, Clinton Lewis 

" Hartley Cone 

" James Phinney 
Bell, Charles H. 
Berry, Stephen 
Blake, Samuel Harward 
Blue, Archibald 
Bonython, John Langdon 
Boston Athenaeum, 

" Public Library, 
Bowdoin College Library, 



Boston. 

Portland. 

Washington, D. C. 
Somerville, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
Portland. 
Worcester. 
Portland. 



Exeter, N. H. 

Portland. 

Bangor. 

Toronto. 

Adelaide, Australia. 

Boston. 

Brunswick, Me. 



72 



THE GORGES SOCIETY. 



Brings, Herbert G. 


Portland. 


Brown, Carroll 


u 


John Marshall 


u 


" Philip Henry- 


u 


Philip Greely 


u 


11 John Nicholas 


Providence, R. I. 


Bryant, Hubbard Winslow 


Portland. 


" Edwin Scammon 


« 


Burnham, Edward Pavson 


Saco. 


Burrage, Henry Sweetser 


Portland. 


Colby University Library, 


Waterville, Me. 


Corliss, Augustus W. 


Fort McDermit, Nevada. 


Cutter, Abram E. 


Boston, Mass. 


Dana, Woodbury Storer 


Portland. 


Dean, John Ward 


Boston. 


Deering, Henry 


Portland. 


De Costa, Benjamin E. 


New York. 


Denham, Edward 


New Bedford, Mass. 


Dent, John Charles 


Toronto. 


De Witt, John E. 


Portland. 


Dexter, Henry Martyn 


Boston. 


Drummond, Josiah Hayden, 


Portland. 


Elder, Janus Granville 


Lewiston. 


El well, Edward Henry 


Deering, Me. 


Fessenden, Francis 


Portland. 


Field, Edward Mann 


Bangor. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 



73 



Fogg, John S. H. 
Goldsmid, Edmund 
Gould, William Edward 
Gorges, R. H. 

Harvard University Library, 
Hawkins, Dexter Arnold 
Hill, Winfield Scott 
Hoyt, Edmund Sawyer 
Jillson, Clark 
Johnson, Edward 
Jordan, Fritz H. 
Lapham, William Berry 
Libby, Charles Freeman 
Library of Congress, 
Little, George Thomas 
Littlefield, George Emery 
Longfellow, Alex'r Wadsworth 
Maine Historical Society, 
Manson, Alfred Small 
Massachusetts State Library 
Moseley, Edward S. 
New England Historic 

Genealogical Societv, 
New York State Library, 
Noyes, Edward Ailing 
Paine, Nathaniel 



South Boston. 

Edinburgh. 

Portland. 

Kingstown, Ireland. 

Cambridge. 

New York, 

Ausrusta. 

Portland. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Belfast, Me. 

Portland, Me. 

Augusta. 

Portland. 

Washington, D. C. 

Brunswick. 

Boston. 

Portland. 

a 

Boston. 

Newburyport, Mass. 

Boston. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Portland. 
Worcester. 



74 



THE GORGES SOCIETY. 



Pierce, Josiah 
Piorkowski, Arthur Emil 
Poole, William Frederick 
Pratt, John F. 
Preble, George Henry 
Prince, Howard L. 
Pullen, Stanley Thomas 
Rand, George Doane 
Richardson, Charles Francis 
Sargent, William Mitchell 
Shapleigh, Waldron 
Short, Leonard Orville 
Smith, Henry St. John 
Soule, John Babson Lane 
Stewart, George Jr. 
Sylvester, Herbert M. 
Symonds, Joseph White 
Thompson, Joseph P. 
Tredwcll, Daniel M. 
U. S. Dept. of State Library, 
Watson, Stephen Marion 
Williamson, Joseph 
Woburn Public Library, 
Woodward, James Otis 
Worcester Free Public 
Library, 



London. 

Magdeburg, Ger. 
Chicago. 
Chelsea, Mass. 
Brookline, " 
Washington, D. C. 
Portland. 

Hanover, N. H. 

Portland. 

New York. 

Portland. 

Portland. 

Highland Park, Illinois, 

Quebec. 

Portland. 



Flatbush, L. I. 
Washington, D. C. 
Portland. 
Belfast. 

Woburn, Mass. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Worcester. 



THE COUNCIL OF THE GORGES SOCIETY 

Beg to announce that the following works are in 
course of preparation for publication by the Society: 

George Cleeve, of Casco Bay, and his Times. 
By Janus Phinney Baxter, A. M. 

Rosier's Relation of the Voyage of Captain George 
Waymouth to the Coast of Maine, 1605, with an 
historical introduction, notes and maps. 

By Henry Sweet 'ser Burr age, D. D. 

The Sixteenth Century Exploration of the New 
England Coast in Relation to the Gulf of 
Maine, illustrated by original material drawn from 
French and English sources. 

By Benjamin F. De Costa, D. D. 

The Voyage into New England by Christopher Levitt, 
1624, with an historical introduction and notes. 

By James Phinney Baxter, A.M. 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES AND 
SUBJECTS. 



Pages. 

Anabaptists, 62 

Arabella, the Lady , 20 

Arabella, the ship 20 

Alexander, Sir William, Encour- 
agement to Colonies, cited, 20 

Allerton, Isaac 24 

America, 7, 9, 10. 11, 18, 19, 30, 38, 41, 
42, 44, 49, 54, 56 
American Antiquarian Society 
Collections, ( Archceologia Am- 
ericana) cited,. 25, 28 

Amsterdam, (Holland) 24 

A vezac, M. d' 17 

Antinomians, the 27, 28 

Admiralty, 34 

Africa, 37 

Amidas, Philip 18 

Anns, Kings 60 

Ash worth, 47 

Aquidneck (Rhode Island), 28 

Arundel, Lord, of Wardour, 19 

Backus, Isaac, History of the Bap- 
tists, cited, 34 

Baker, John 50, 55 

Baltic sea, 37, 49 

10 



Pages. 
Bancroft, George, History of the 

United States, cited, 18,23 

Banks, Sir John .-^ 30 

Barlow, Arthur 18 

Barnend, Co. Kent (England) 14 

Bartlett, John Eussell 12 

Bradford, William, History of Ply- 
mouth Plantation, cited,. . .23, 24 

Becx, 51 

Bell, 47 

Bellingham, Richard 35, 36 

Brereton, William, Brief and True 

Relation, cited, 18 

Bristol (England), 17, 00 

British Museum (London), 56 

Boston (Massachusetts), 14, 27, 28, 

29,30,31,49, 50, 53, 50,59 

Bound House (Seabrook, N. II.), ...20 

Brooks, 00 

Brown, John Carter 12, 13 

Browne, John 28 

Browne, Samuel 28 

Burton, John, Diary cited, 35 

Bulkeley, 35 

Bryant, Hubbard Winslow, 12 



7* 



INDEX. 



Cabot, John 17 

Cabot, Sebastian 17 

Cambridge ( Massachusetts), 33 

Carndeu Society Publications, 

cited, 25 

Canada, 45 

Cannon Street (London), 47 

Capawick, 22 

Cape Ann (Massachusetts), ...23,59 

Cape Breton (Nova Scotia), 44 

Cape Cod (Massachusetts), 22, 24 

Carolina, 18 

Chalmers, George, Political An- 
nals cited, 30 

Chainperno wne, Francis 53 

Charles the First, 0, 47 

Charles River (Massachusetts), 25, 44 

Charles the Second, 5, 17, 33 

Charlestown (Massachusetts), 35 

Charts, 9, 14, 15, 37, 44 

Clark, 63 

Clarke, Thomas 28 

Cradock, Matthew 57 

Cheapside (London), 47 

Child, Robert 32 

Civil War, 34 

Coinage, 33,62 

Coke, Sir Edward, 23 

Colonies, the United 36 

Colonial Manuscripts, (Public Rec- 
ord Office) cited,. .7, 9, 10, 28, 38, 
41, 46, 48, 50, 54 

Columbus, 54 

Common Prayer, Book of 29, 31 

Commonwealth, the English. 10, 11, 41 

Conant, Roger 24 

Connecticut, 35 

places in mentioned : 
New Haven, 37 



Congress, Library of 12 

Coopers Hall (London ) , 46 

Copeland, John 26 

Cotton, John 27, 28 

Council for New England, 7,21 

Cowes, the (England), 25 

Cromwell, Oliver 11,34, 35, 50 

Cromwell, Richard 10, 46, 48. 50 

Dand, 32 

Drake, Sir Francis 18 

DeCosta, B. F 20 

Delaware Bay, 45 

Denison, Daniel 35 

Dexter, Henry Martyn, As to Roger 

Williams, cited 29 

Doctors Commons (Loftdon), 51 

Dorchester (Massachusetts), 23 

Dorchester (England), 24 

Dover (England), 5 

Doyle, J. A., English Colonies in 

America, cited, 17 

Dudley, Thomas, Letter to Count- 
ess of Lincoln, cited, 23 

Duinmer, Jeremiah, Defence of 
New England Charters, cited,.. 27 

Dyer, Mary 27,28 

Dyer, William 28 

Eagle, the ship 26 

Ecclesiasticus (Apocrypha) cited, 

31,32 

Echard. History of England, cited, 24' 

England,. . .8, 15. 17, 21, 22, 25, 26, 29, 

30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 41, 42, 43, 

45, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 02 

places in mentioned : 

Barnend, Co. Kent 14 

Barnstable, Devonshire, 44 
Bristol, Gloucestershire, 
17.60 



INDEX. 



79 



Cowes, the 25 

Dorchester, 24 

Dover, Co. Kent, 5 

Hampton, 28 

Hertfordshire, 7 

London, 6, 7, 17, 18, 22, 24, 
26, 27, 28, 48; 56 

Norfolk, 8 

Plymouth, Devonshire, 

19,60 

Thames, the 29 

Wilmington, Co. Kent, . . 14 
Worcester, Co. Worces- 
ter, 33 

England, Church of, 25, 36, 37, 53, 58, 

59 

England, Flag of 34, 38, 59 

Exchange, the new (London) 28,47,51 

Epenowe, (an Indian) 22 

Egerton 56 

Evers, 60 

Endicott, John 29, 34, 35, 57 

Elizabeth, (Queen ), 18 

Emigration, Statistics of, 27 

Egyptians, 37, 38, 46, 47 

Familists, 28 

France, 36, 37 

Frankfort (Germany), 18 

Fifth Monarchy 17 

Firm in, Giles .* 35 

Fisheries, 23 

Florida 9, 14, 17, 37, 44 

Folsom, George, History of Saco 

and Biddeford, cited, 21 

Fowle, . . ..32 

Foxe, George, Secret Workes, 

cited, 26 

Gardiner Family, 7 

Gardiner, Henry ( the father), 7 



Gardiner, Henry (the author),.. ..6, 8, 
10,11,41 

Gardiner, Sir Christopher 29 

Garland, the ship 22 

Grase (Grays) Inn (London),. .47, 51 

Gray, 29 

Geffard,John 53 

Germany, places in, mentioned : 

Frankfort, 18 

Greece 37 

Greenfield, (Grenville) Sir Richard, 18 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey 18 

Gilbert, Raleigh 20 

Godfrey, Edward.. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 

14, 24, 29, 30, 41, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 

50, 51, 53, 54, 55 

Godfrey, Elizabeth 14 

Godfrey, Oliver 14/41, 53 

Goffe, 57 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, 7, 11, 21, 22, 30 

Briefe Narration, cited,. 19, 20, 

21, 23 

Gorges, Ferdinando 11,41, 54, 55 

Gorges, Society 5 

Gospel, Corporation for Propaga- 
tion of the, 46 

Hakluyt, Richard, voyages cited,. .18 

Hampton, (England) 28 

Hariot, Thomas, Briefe and True 

Report, cited, 18 

Harley, Henry 22 

Harvard College, 35 

Hassam, John T , 56 

Hazard, Ebenezer, Collections, 

cited, 30,32 

Hawkins, Sir Richard 22 

Hender, 54, 55 

Henry, the Seventh 17,54 

Hertfordshire (England), 7 



8o 



INDEX 



Hildreth, Richard, History of 
United States, cited, 

Hobson, Captain 

Holland, places in mentioned: 

Amsterdam, 

Holmes, 

Hooke, William 

Hopkins, Edward 

Houper, 

Hubbard, William, History of New 
England cited,. 

Hudson River, (New York), 

Hull, John, Diary, cited, 28, 

Hunt, Thomas 20, 

Hutcheson, David 

Hutchinson, Anne 27, 20, 

Hutchinson, Thomas, History of 

Massachusetts cited 

Original Papers cited, 

Israelites, 37, 38, 46, 

Italy 

Indicoat, see Endicott. 

Ironbound Island (Nova Scotia),.. 

Jamaica, 35, 

James the First,. 18, 

Jenness, John Scribner, Tran- 
scripts of Original Documents 
cited, 

Johnson, Edward, Wonder- Work- 
ing Providence, cited, 27, 

Johnson, Isaac 

Jordan, Thomas 

Josseline, Henry 

Josselyn, John, Two Voyages cited,. 

Knowles 

Labrador 

Laconia Company 7 

La Heve, (Nova Scotia) 

Lenox Library, the 



14 



Lechford, Thomas, Plaine Dealing 

cited, *37 

Leverett, John 35, 36, 50 

Levett, Christopher, Voyage to 

New England, cited, 20 

Library, the Lenox 12 

Library of Congress, 12 

Library, the John Carter Brown,. .12 

Liconia, (Lygonia) 41 

Lincoln, Countess of 23 

Lincoln, Earl 26 

London, 6, 7, 17, 18, 22, 24, 26, 28, 4S, 56 
places in, mentioned : 

British Museum, 56 

Cannon Street, 47 

Cheapside, 47 

Coopers Hall, 7. 46 

Doctors Commons, 51 

Exchange, the 47, 51 

Grase (Gray's) Inn, 47,54 

Gratious Street 47 

Ludgate Prison, 11, 55 

Philpot Lane 47 

Tower Street, 47 

Turner Hall, 47 

Watling Street, 47 

Whitehall, 6,22 

London Company, 7 

Long, Robert, the ship, 21 

Ludgate Prison, (London), 11, £5 

Luttrell, Francis 54 

Maine,. . .6, 8, 12, 21 , 30, 38, 41, 53, 54 
places in, mentioned : 

Pernaquid, 10 

Portland, 12 

Sagadahoc, 10,20 

York (County), 32 

Maine Historical Society Collec- 
tions, cited, 17, 20 



INDEX, 



81 



Maligo (Spain), 21 

Manida, (an Indian), 19 

Maps, 9, 14,15,37,44 

Mary, the ship, GO 

Mason, Captain John 7, 9, 13 

Mason, Joseph 53 

Mason, Robert 11,41,51,54 

Massachusetts, C, 8, 11, 12, 14, 23, 2G, 

28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 42, 44, 

49, 50, 51, 52 

places in mentioned: 

Boston, 14, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 49, 

50, 52, 53, 50, 59 

Cambridge, 33 

Cape Ann, 23,59 

Cape Cod, 22,24 

Charles River, 25, 44 

Charlestown, 35 

Dorchester, 23 

Merry-Mount (Quincy) 23 

Noddles Island, 38 

Plymouth, 24,28 

Salem 24,27,29, 34 

Wessagussett, ( Weymouth), 24 

Massachusetts Archives, 33 

Massachusetts Bay, Governor and 

Company of, 25 

Massachusetts, Colonial Records 

of, cited, 29, 33, 34 

Massachusetts, General Court of, 

29, 32, 33, 34 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 
Proceedings, cited, 20, 21, 24, 20, 
28, 37, 56 

Mather, Nathaniel 35 

Maverick, Samuel 32, 38 

Merrimac, the River, 25, 44 

Merry-Mount, (Quincy, Massachu- 
setts,) 23 



Michelson, 47 

Milton, John ...34 

Moody, Lady Deborah .62 

Morton, Nathaniel, Memorial cited, 29 
Morton, Thomas, New' England 

Canaan, cited, 23 

Mourt, George, Relation, cited, 21 

Mulgrave, Earl, 23 

Nason, see Mason. 

Navy, the Royal, 18 

Netherlands, New, 36, 45 

New England, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22, 

26, 28, 33, 34, 41,42, 46, 40, 50, 51, 

52, 55, 56 

New England, Council for, 7,21 

New Englands Ensigne, cited, 26 

New England, Fisheries of, ... 23 

New England Historic-Genealog- 
ical Society, 56 

Register cited, 56 

New Foundland, 9, 14, 17, 18, 37, 43, 44 
places in mentioned: 

St. Johns, 18 

New Hampshire, 6, 26, 52 

places in, mentioned : 

Seabrook, 26 

Piscataqua, 7, 36, 52 

Wennicunnett (Seabrook). . .26 

New Haven, (Connecticut), 37 

New York, 12 

places in mentioned, 

Hudson; River, 45 

Nicholas, Sir Edward 10, 11, 48 

Nicolls, (Richard), 55 

Noddles Island, (Massachusetts), ..38 

Norfolk, County of, (England), 8 

North West Passage, 19 

Norton, Humphrey, 26 

Nova Francia, 44 



82 



INDEX. 



Nova Scotia, 36, 44 

places in mentioned: 

Cape Breton, 44 

Iron Bound Island, 20 

La Heve, Harbor of, 20 

Oath, Freeman's, 61 

Fidelity, 61 

Allegiance, ...01 

Obadiah, ...63 

Oldmixon, British Empire, cited,. .27 
Palfrey, John Gorham, History of 

New England cited,. 14, 33, 3-3, 36 
Parliament, English,. 10, 11,23, 32,41, 

42, 60 

Patents, lists of, 14 

Pratt, Phineas, Narrative, cited,. ..21 

Peake, 47 

Pemaquid, (Maine) 19 

Pepys, Samuel, Diary, cited, 17 

Pequot War, 35 

Peter(s) Hugh, 14, 34, 40,55 

President and Council for New 
England, Briefe Relation, cited, 

20,21,23 

Philpot Lane, (London) 47 

Piscataqua, (N. Hampshire),. 7, 36,52 

Printing 33 

Privy Council, 29 

Pope, the 34 

Popham, Sir Francis 19 

Popham, George 20 

Popham, Sir John 19 

Popham Memorial Volume, cited, 

11, 20 

Portland, (Maine), 12 

Potter,. 55 

Povey, Thomas 9, 53, 54 

Propagation of the Gospel, Corpo- 
ration for 46 



Protectorate, the 5 

Providence, (Rhode Island), 12 

Purchas, Samuel, His Pilgrimes, 

cited 20 

Plymouth, (England), 19, 60 

Plymouth (Massachusetts), 24, 28 

Plymouth Company,. 22 

Plymouth, Council of, 23, 24 

Plymouth Plantation, 23 

Quakers, 63 

Quo Warranto Trial, 29, 32 

Rawley, (Ralegh), Sir Walter 18 

Rawson, Edward 30 

Restoration, the 5 

Rigby, Edward 11, 41 

Rhode Island, ~ 12 

places in mentioned : 

Aquidneck, .28 

Providence, 12 

Roanoke Island, 18 

Roberts, Lord, 54, 55 

Robinson, Rev. John 24 

Roffe, 47 

Rome 30 

Roswell, Sir William 25 

Rous, John 26 

Rous, John, Diary, cited, 25 

Russell, see Roswell. 

Ryiner, Fcedera, cited, 18 

Sagadahoc (Maine), 19, 20 

Salem, (Massachusetts), .24, 27, 29,34 

Saltonstall, Sir Richard 35 

Shakespeare, William, Tempest, 

cited, 22 

Spain, 18,21,22,36,37 

places in mentioned : 

Maligo (Malaga) 21 

Spanish State Papers, cited, 17 

Stagg, GO 



INDEX. 



S3 



Strachey, William, Historie of 

Travaile, cited, 17,19, 20, 22 

Seabrook, (New Hampshire),. ...26 

Sedgwick, Robert 35, 36 

Sheffield, Lord 23 

Sketwarroes, (an Indian), 19 

Smith, Captain John 21 

General Historie, cited, 

20, 21, 22, 24 

True Travels, cited, 24 

Smith, .47 

Spring, Mary 8 

Spring, Thomas 8 

St Johns (NewFoundland), 18 

Southern Company, 7 

Stone, 29 

Stoughton, 35 

Stuart, House of 5 

Thames, the River, .29 

Temple, Sir Thomas 33 

Thevet, Andre, Cosinographie Uni- 

verselle, cited, 17 

Thing, Jonathan 32 

Tisquantum, (an Indian), 19 

Trial, Quo Warranto, 29, 32 

Trinculo, 22 

Thornton, John Wingate, Landing 

at Cape Ann, cited 24 

Tower Street, (London), 47 

Turks, the 21,38 

Turner Hall, (London) 47 

United Colonies, the 3G 

Vane, Sir Henry 35, 55 

Vassal, William 32 

Venncr, Thomas 17, 55 

Vines. Richard 20, 21 



Virginia, 7, 18, 19,22 

Walford, Thomas 29 

Walner, 47 

Warwick, Lord 25 

Washington, (D. C), 12 

Waters, Henry Fitz Gilbert 56 

Watling Street, (London), 47 

Welde, Thomas 35 

Short Story cited,.. 27, 28 
Wennicunnett, (Seabrook, New 

Hampshire), 26 

Wessagussett, (Weymouth, Mas- 
sachusetts), 24 

West India, 45, 54 

Weston, Thomas 24 

Weymouth, Captain George 19 

Wheelwright, John "...28, 29 

Mercurius Araericanus 

cited 28 

White, John 24 

Planters Plea, cited,.. 24 

Whitehall, (London), 6,22 

Williams, Roger 29 

Williamson, William I)., History 

of Maine, cited, 21 

Wilmington, (England), 14 

Winslow, Edward 24, 35, 59 

Good Newes, cited, .24 

Winthrop, John 25, 30, 35, 57 

Journal, cited,. 28, 29, 30, 
33, 34, 35 

Winthrop, Stephen 35 

York County, (Maine), Court Rec- 
ords, cited, 32 

York, (Maine), 32 

York, Duke of 55 



Corrigenda. 

P. 41, line 6, for Nason read Mason, 
P. 53, line 21, for Reg read Rig. 




5T?3H